|By Adam Messinger, Mike Piech||
|April 11, 2009 10:00 PM EDT||
Application servers, those dependable workhorses that run most enterprise Java applications, are rarely a hot topic of conversation these days. As a technology category, the application server appears to be fairly "established" and that the focus has moved elsewhere in the stack, but appearances can be deceiving.
In fact, much remains to be done at the application server layer. One area ripe for innovation is the ability for application server instances to work together to enable more rapid deployment of new applications and hardware while at the same time improving the utilization of underlying physical resources. In contrast to the traditional one-app/one-app-server/one-OS/one-machine architecture, a new approach has emerged with multiple application servers pooling and sharing lower-cost compute resources, while dynamically reallocating these resources across applications as needs evolve.
Grid computing refers to the aggregation of multiple, distributed computing resources, making them function as a single computing resource with respect to a particular computational task. Grid is a form of virtualization in the sense that it hides the details of resources and makes them appear like something different. Application grid applies the same concept to application servers and describes an architecture in which multiple application server instances work together to provide a shared, dynamically allocatable pool of resources to a set of applications.
Why an Application Grid?
Before delving into what it takes to make this concept work, let's look at the motivation for seeking an alternative approach in the first place. What is the primary infrastructure challenge as it stands today? An issue widely discussed in the pages of Java Developer's Journal is that of stove-piped architecture whereby applications are structured as monolithic entities that are difficult to integrate and reuse. Industry adoption of SOA has gone a long way to breaking down stovepipes at the application level. SOA achieves this by decomposing applications into finer-grained services that can be connected and reused in a more flexible way. Stove-piped resources typically remain underneath each of these SOA services - machines that are statically allocated to the entities they run. As each stovepipe (stack) is statically configured, bringing new stacks online takes a lot of effort and a big investment in hardware that will likely be underutilized.
With an application grid, the allocation of machines to applications is dynamic since it becomes easier to bring both new machines and new applications into service. With a stovepipe under an application, increasing capacity typically means adding another app server/OS/machine stack and then putting a mechanism in place to load-balance. This causes inefficiency because you don't get linear scaling - doubling the number of servers doesn't get you double the number of transactions per second or concurrent users - because other bottlenecks come into play. By contrast new application grid-enabled application servers support clustering that scales to much higher levels.
An application grid also helps improve hardware efficiency because excess capacity can be redirected to applications that need it most. By sharing and pooling resources, an application grid allows the total compute resources required to be less than the sum of all the applications' peak demands. Since few applications hit their peak loads at the same time in most environments, shared resources can be moved from lower-demand applications to those with higher demand. Continuous, automated, dynamic adjustment of resources is one of the primary capabilities of the application grid architecture.
Finally, an application grid enables a higher quality of service. Faster response times and higher reliability, which come from the application grid's ability to parallelize computation, replicate data across distributed nodes, and reduce interruptions from network problems or Java garbage collection, allow more computation per unit of time, and improve resiliency by eliminating single points of failure and automating failover. An application grid also provides tools to manage a collection of machines in an aggregated way, enabling faster administrative response and reducing human error.
Creating an Application Grid
Sounds great, but can this be achieved with current technologies? There is certainly more work for vendors in future product releases, but much can be done today. There are four fundamental capabilities that must be in place at the application server level: clustering, adjusting, metering, and automating.
Clustering is supported by most application servers, though with varying levels of reliability and administration. It is most often used for availability/failover: instances in a cluster divide work and replicate data, such as Web user sessions; each instance is responsible to another member of the cluster that serves as a backup. A backup server automatically takes over responsibilities in the event of the primary's failure. Clustering also allows horizontal scale-out since work is distributed (load-balanced) across the cluster.
Adjustment capability coupled with scale-out clustering is a key element of application grids. It's one thing to statically set up a set of application server instances (nodes) as a cluster and put load balancing in front of it. But when nodes can be added to or removed from the cluster while the application is running, we have the basis for dynamic scaling.
Metering, or instrumentation, complements adjustment. We need to adjust clusters for visibility into what's happening inside them. Are any computing resources near critical thresholds? Are application service levels in danger? In short, the application server, the Java Virtual Machine, and other resources must provide the right kind of information about things like memory use and latency.
Once we have dynamically adjustable clustering with good instrumentation, the linchpin of the application grid is automation. This meta-level controller plugs into the adjustment controls and metering instruments of the clusters creating an automated feedback loop of observations and adjustments. The mechanism adds nodes to clusters in need of capacity and removes nodes from clusters with reduced need. Since each cluster is ignorant of the surrounding clusters competing for resources, the application grid controller makes allocation decisions that are optimal for the grid overall, taking into account demands, resources, and policies.
Many enterprises have already started down the path to an application grid by using the clustering mechanisms in contemporary application servers for horizontal scale-out and by using scripting to partially automate the addition and removal of nodes.
State-of-the-art distributed caching technologies complement these early steps by creating an even more dynamic in-memory data grid with extreme scalability. Real-time JVM technology provides the predictability and additional instrumentation for applications with microsecond latency demands. And finally, as understanding and practices around application grid mature, management technologies with increasingly sophisticated mechanisms for cross-grid optimization will continue to evolve.
The combination of accelerating business change and the agility enabled by SOA imposes increasingly volatile demands on infrastructure. At the same time, the economic climate is driving the need for greater resource efficiency. It's time for a new approach to application resourcing: application grid.
|jabailo 05/14/09 01:39:00 PM EDT|
I think application server developers should switch from trying to build something that has everything but the kitchen sink, to moderately functional, very robust and specifically useful servers.
The application grid is a great idea. Instead of repeating clusters of overloaded database and application servers, a heterogeneous network of servers that have a blend of specific functionality and some degree of programmability inside the box.
One of the biggest impacts of the Internet of Things is and will continue to be on data; specifically data volume, management and usage. Companies are scrambling to adapt to this new and unpredictable data reality with legacy infrastructure that cannot handle the speed and volume of data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Don DeLoach, CEO and president of Infobright, will discuss how companies need to rethink their data infrastructure to participate in the IoT, including: Data storage: Understanding the kinds of data: structured, unstructured, big/small? Analytics: What kinds and how responsiv...
Mar. 4, 2015 05:00 AM EST Reads: 2,641
The Workspace-as-a-Service (WaaS) market will grow to $6.4B by 2018. In his session at 16th Cloud Expo, Seth Bostock, CEO of IndependenceIT, will begin by walking the audience through the evolution of Workspace as-a-Service, where it is now vs. where it going. To look beyond the desktop we must understand exactly what WaaS is, who the users are, and where it is going in the future. IT departments, ISVs and service providers must look to workflow and automation capabilities to adapt to growing demand and the rapidly changing workspace model.
Mar. 4, 2015 04:00 AM EST Reads: 1,081
Sensor-enabled things are becoming more commonplace, precursors to a larger and more complex framework that most consider the ultimate promise of the IoT: things connecting, interacting, sharing, storing, and over time perhaps learning and predicting based on habits, behaviors, location, preferences, purchases and more. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Tom Wesselman, Director of Communications Ecosystem Architecture at Plantronics, will examine the still nascent IoT as it is coalescing, including what it is today, what it might ultimately be, the role of wearable tech, and technology gaps stil...
Mar. 4, 2015 03:30 AM EST Reads: 2,728
The Internet of Things (IoT) promises to evolve the way the world does business; however, understanding how to apply it to your company can be a mystery. Most people struggle with understanding the potential business uses or tend to get caught up in the technology, resulting in solutions that fail to meet even minimum business goals. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jesse Shiah, CEO / President / Co-Founder of AgilePoint Inc., showed what is needed to leverage the IoT to transform your business. He discussed opportunities and challenges ahead for the IoT from a market and technical point of vie...
Mar. 4, 2015 02:45 AM EST Reads: 3,814
Hadoop as a Service (as offered by handful of niche vendors now) is a cloud computing solution that makes medium and large-scale data processing accessible, easy, fast and inexpensive. In his session at Big Data Expo, Kumar Ramamurthy, Vice President and Chief Technologist, EIM & Big Data, at Virtusa, will discuss how this is achieved by eliminating the operational challenges of running Hadoop, so one can focus on business growth. The fragmented Hadoop distribution world and various PaaS solutions that provide a Hadoop flavor either make choices for customers very flexible in the name of opti...
Mar. 4, 2015 02:30 AM EST Reads: 1,172
The true value of the Internet of Things (IoT) lies not just in the data, but through the services that protect the data, perform the analysis and present findings in a usable way. With many IoT elements rooted in traditional IT components, Big Data and IoT isn’t just a play for enterprise. In fact, the IoT presents SMBs with the prospect of launching entirely new activities and exploring innovative areas. CompTIA research identifies several areas where IoT is expected to have the greatest impact.
Mar. 4, 2015 02:00 AM EST Reads: 3,125
Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) are increasing at an unprecedented rate. The threat landscape of today is drastically different than just a few years ago. Attacks are much more organized and sophisticated. They are harder to detect and even harder to anticipate. In the foreseeable future it's going to get a whole lot harder. Everything you know today will change. Keeping up with this changing landscape is already a daunting task. Your organization needs to use the latest tools, methods and expertise to guard against those threats. But will that be enough? In the foreseeable future attacks w...
Mar. 4, 2015 01:30 AM EST Reads: 3,519
Disruptive macro trends in technology are impacting and dramatically changing the "art of the possible" relative to supply chain management practices through the innovative use of IoT, cloud, machine learning and Big Data to enable connected ecosystems of engagement. Enterprise informatics can now move beyond point solutions that merely monitor the past and implement integrated enterprise fabrics that enable end-to-end supply chain visibility to improve customer service delivery and optimize supplier management. Learn about enterprise architecture strategies for designing connected systems tha...
Mar. 4, 2015 12:30 AM EST Reads: 3,542
Wearable devices have come of age. The primary applications of wearables so far have been "the Quantified Self" or the tracking of one's fitness and health status. We propose the evolution of wearables into social and emotional communication devices. Our BE(tm) sensor uses light to visualize the skin conductance response. Our sensors are very inexpensive and can be massively distributed to audiences or groups of any size, in order to gauge reactions to performances, video, or any kind of presentation. In her session at @ThingsExpo, Jocelyn Scheirer, CEO & Founder of Bionolux, will discuss ho...
Mar. 4, 2015 12:00 AM EST Reads: 3,088
Even as cloud and managed services grow increasingly central to business strategy and performance, challenges remain. The biggest sticking point for companies seeking to capitalize on the cloud is data security. Keeping data safe is an issue in any computing environment, and it has been a focus since the earliest days of the cloud revolution. Understandably so: a lot can go wrong when you allow valuable information to live outside the firewall. Recent revelations about government snooping, along with a steady stream of well-publicized data breaches, only add to the uncertainty
Mar. 3, 2015 11:15 PM EST Reads: 748
SYS-CON Events announced today that Dyn, the worldwide leader in Internet Performance, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Dyn is a cloud-based Internet Performance company. Dyn helps companies monitor, control, and optimize online infrastructure for an exceptional end-user experience. Through a world-class network and unrivaled, objective intelligence into Internet conditions, Dyn ensures traffic gets delivered faster, safer, and more reliably than ever.
Mar. 3, 2015 09:15 PM EST Reads: 876
As organizations shift toward IT-as-a-service models, the need for managing and protecting data residing across physical, virtual, and now cloud environments grows with it. CommVault can ensure protection &E-Discovery of your data – whether in a private cloud, a Service Provider delivered public cloud, or a hybrid cloud environment – across the heterogeneous enterprise. In his session at 16th Cloud Expo, Randy De Meno, Chief Technologist - Windows Products and Microsoft Partnerships, will discuss how to cut costs, scale easily, and unleash insight with CommVault Simpana software, the only si...
Mar. 3, 2015 05:00 PM EST Reads: 964
Cloud data governance was previously an avoided function when cloud deployments were relatively small. With the rapid adoption in public cloud – both rogue and sanctioned, it’s not uncommon to find regulated data dumped into public cloud and unprotected. This is why enterprises and cloud providers alike need to embrace a cloud data governance function and map policies, processes and technology controls accordingly. In her session at 15th Cloud Expo, Evelyn de Souza, Data Privacy and Compliance Strategy Leader at Cisco Systems, will focus on how to set up a cloud data governance program and s...
Mar. 3, 2015 04:15 PM EST Reads: 928
Roberto Medrano, Executive Vice President at SOA Software, had reached 30,000 page views on his home page - http://RobertoMedrano.SYS-CON.com/ - on the SYS-CON family of online magazines, which includes Cloud Computing Journal, Internet of Things Journal, Big Data Journal, and SOA World Magazine. He is a recognized executive in the information technology fields of SOA, internet security, governance, and compliance. He has extensive experience with both start-ups and large companies, having been involved at the beginning of four IT industries: EDA, Open Systems, Computer Security and now SOA.
Mar. 3, 2015 04:00 PM EST Reads: 1,443
The industrial software market has treated data with the mentality of “collect everything now, worry about how to use it later.” We now find ourselves buried in data, with the pervasive connectivity of the (Industrial) Internet of Things only piling on more numbers. There’s too much data and not enough information. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Bob Gates, Global Marketing Director, GE’s Intelligent Platforms business, to discuss how realizing the power of IoT, software developers are now focused on understanding how industrial data can create intelligence for industrial operations. Imagine ...
Mar. 3, 2015 03:15 PM EST Reads: 1,521
Operational Hadoop and the Lambda Architecture for Streaming Data Apache Hadoop is emerging as a distributed platform for handling large and fast incoming streams of data. Predictive maintenance, supply chain optimization, and Internet-of-Things analysis are examples where Hadoop provides the scalable storage, processing, and analytics platform to gain meaningful insights from granular data that is typically only valuable from a large-scale, aggregate view. One architecture useful for capturing and analyzing streaming data is the Lambda Architecture, representing a model of how to analyze rea...
Mar. 3, 2015 02:00 PM EST Reads: 1,481
SYS-CON Events announced today that Vitria Technology, Inc. will exhibit at SYS-CON’s @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Vitria will showcase the company’s new IoT Analytics Platform through live demonstrations at booth #330. Vitria’s IoT Analytics Platform, fully integrated and powered by an operational intelligence engine, enables customers to rapidly build and operationalize advanced analytics to deliver timely business outcomes for use cases across the industrial, enterprise, and consumer segments.
Mar. 3, 2015 01:45 PM EST Reads: 1,369
HP and Aruba Networks on Monday announced a definitive agreement for HP to acquire Aruba, a provider of next-generation network access solutions for the mobile enterprise, for $24.67 per share in cash. The equity value of the transaction is approximately $3.0 billion, and net of cash and debt approximately $2.7 billion. Both companies' boards of directors have approved the deal. "Enterprises are facing a mobile-first world and are looking for solutions that help them transition legacy investments to the new style of IT," said Meg Whitman, Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer of HP...
Mar. 3, 2015 01:00 PM EST Reads: 940
Containers and microservices have become topics of intense interest throughout the cloud developer and enterprise IT communities. Accordingly, attendees at the upcoming 16th Cloud Expo at the Javits Center in New York June 9-11 will find fresh new content in a new track called PaaS | Containers & Microservices Containers are not being considered for the first time by the cloud community, but a current era of re-consideration has pushed them to the top of the cloud agenda. With the launch of Docker's initial release in March of 2013, interest was revved up several notches. Then late last...
Mar. 3, 2015 01:00 PM EST Reads: 996
The explosion of connected devices / sensors is creating an ever-expanding set of new and valuable data. In parallel the emerging capability of Big Data technologies to store, access, analyze, and react to this data is producing changes in business models under the umbrella of the Internet of Things (IoT). In particular within the Insurance industry, IoT appears positioned to enable deep changes by altering relationships between insurers, distributors, and the insured. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Michael Sick, a Senior Manager and Big Data Architect within Ernst and Young's Financial Servi...
Mar. 3, 2015 12:00 PM EST Reads: 1,455