Welcome!

Microservices Expo Authors: Elizabeth White, Aruna Ravichandran, Liz McMillan, Pat Romanski, Cameron Van Orman

Related Topics: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning , @CloudExpo

Artificial Intelligence: Article

AWS Broke the Internet Again or, Better, a Typo | @CloudExpo #AI #ML #DL

An AI-defined infrastructure can help to avoid service disruptions

Amazon Web Services (AWS) broke the Internet again or better "a typo". On February 28, 2017, an Amazon S3 service disruption in AWS' oldest region US-EAST-1 shuts down several major websites and services like Slack, Trello, Quora, Business Insider, Coursera and Time Inc. Other users were reporting that they were also unable to control devices which were connected via the Internet of Things since IFTTT was also down. Those kinds of disruptions are becoming more and more business critical for today's digital economy. To prevent these situations, cloud users should always consider the shared responsibility model in the public cloud. However, there are also ways where Artificial Intelligence (AI) can help. This article describes that an AI-defined Infrastructure respectively an AI-powered IT management system can help to avoid service disruptions of public cloud providers.

Amazon S3 Service Disruption - What has happened
After every service disruption AWS writes a summary of what was going on during an incident. This is what happened on the morning of February 28.

"The Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) team was debugging an issue causing the S3 billing system to progress more slowly than expected. At 9:37AM PST, an authorized S3 team member using an established playbook executed a command which was intended to remove a small number of servers for one of the S3 subsystems that is used by the S3 billing process. Unfortunately, one of the inputs to the command was entered incorrectly and a larger set of servers was removed than intended. The servers that were inadvertently removed supported two other S3 subsystems.  One of these subsystems, the index subsystem, manages the metadata and location information of all S3 objects in the region. This subsystem is necessary to serve all GET, LIST, PUT, and DELETE requests. The second subsystem, the placement subsystem, manages allocation of new storage and requires the index subsystem to be functioning properly to correctly operate. The placement subsystem is used during PUT requests to allocate storage for new objects. Removing a significant portion of the capacity caused each of these systems to require a full restart. While these subsystems were being restarted, S3 was unable to service requests. Other AWS services in the US-EAST-1 Region that rely on S3 for storage, including the S3 console, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) new instance launches, Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS) volumes (when data was needed from a S3 snapshot), and AWS Lambda were also impacted while the S3 APIs were unavailable."

Read more under "Summary of the Amazon S3 Service Disruption in the Northern Virginia (US-EAST-1) Region".

Bottom line, a typo crashed the AWS powered Internet! AWS outages already have a long history and the more AWS customers running their web infrastructure on the cloud giant, the more issues end customers will experience in the future. According to SimilarTech only Amazon S3 is already used by 152,123 websites and 124,577 unique domains.

However, following the philosophy of "Everything fails all the time (Werner Vogels, CTO Amazon.com)" means if you are using AWS you must "Design for Failure".  Something cloud role model and video on demand provider Netflix is doing in perfection. In doing so, Netflix has developed its Simian Army an open source toolset everyone can use to run a cloud infrastructure on AWS high-available.

Netflix "simply" uses the two levels of redundancy AWS offers. Multiple regions and multiple availability zones (AZ). Multiple regions are the masterclass of using AWS, very complex and sophisticated since you must build and manage entire separated infrastructure environments within AWS' worldwide distributed cloud infrastructure. Multiple AZs are the preferred and "easiest" way for high availability (HA) on AWS. In this case, the infrastructure is built within more than one data center (AZ). In doing so, a single region HA architecture is deployed in at least two or more AZs - a load balancer in front of it is controlling the data traffic.

However, even if "typos" shouldn't happen the recent accident shows, that human error is still the biggest issue running IT systems. In addition, you can blame AWS only to a certain extend since the public cloud is about shared responsibility.

Shared Responsibility in the Public Cloud
An important public cloud detail is the self-service. Depending on its DNA the providers are only taking responsibility for specific areas. The customer is responsible for the rest. In the public cloud, it is about sharing responsibilities - this model is called Shared Responsibility. The provider and its customers divide the field of duties among themselves. In doing so, the customer's self-responsibility plays a major role. In the context of IaaS utilization, the provider is responsible for the operations and security of the physical environment. He is taking care of:

  • Set up and maintenance of the entire data center infrastructure.
  • Deployment of compute power, storage, network and managed services (like databases) and other micro services.
  • Provisioning the virtualization layer customers are using to demand virtual resources at any time.
  • Deployment of services and tools customers can use to manage their areas of responsibility.

The customer is responsible for the operations and security of the logical environment. This includes:

  • Set up of the virtual infrastructure.
  • Installation of operating systems.
  • Configuration of networks and firewall settings.
  • Operations of own applications and self-developed (micro) services.

Thus, the customer is responsible for the operations and security of his own infrastructure environment and the systems, applications, services, as well as stored data on top of it. However, providers like Amazon Web Services or Microsoft Azure provide comprehensive tools and services customers can use e.g. to encrypt their data as well as ensure identity and access controls. In addition, enablement services (micro services) exist that customers can adopt to develop own applications more quickly and easily.

In doing so, the customer is all alone in its area of responsibility and thus must take self-responsibility. However, this part of the shared responsibility can be done by an AI-defined IT management system respectively an AI-defined Infrastructure.

An AI-defined Infrastructure can help to avoid Service Disruptions
An AI-defined Infrastructure can help to avoid service disruptions in the public cloud. However, the basis of this kind of infrastructure is a General AI that combines three major human abilities that enable enterprises to tackle IT and business process challenges.

  • Understanding: By creating a semantic data map the General AI understands the world of the company in which its IT and business exists.
  • Learning: By creating Knowledge Items the General AI learns best practices and reasoning from experts. Knowledge is taught in atomic pieces of information (Knowledge Items) that represent separate steps of a process.
  • Solving: With machine reasoning problems are solved in ambiguous and changing environments. The General AI dynamically reacts to the ever-changing context, selecting the best course of action. Based on machine learning the results are optimized through experiments.

To put this into the context of an AWS service disruption:

  • Understanding: The General AI creates a semantic map of the AWS environment as part of the world in which the company exists.
  • Learning: IT experts create Knowledge Items while they are configuring and working with AWS from what the General AI learns best practices. Thus, the experts teach the General AI contextual knowledge that includes what, when, where and why something needs to be done - for example when a specific AWS service is not responding.
  • Solving: The General AI dynamically reacts to incidents based on the learned knowledge. Thus, the AI (probably) knows what to do at this very moment - even if no high availability setup was considered from the beginning.

Frankly speaking, everything described above is no magic. Like every new born organism an AI-defined Infrastructure needs to be trained but afterwards can work autonomously as well as can detect anomalies as well as service disruptions in the public cloud and solve them. Therefore, you need the knowledge of experts who have a deep understanding of AWS and how the cloud works in general. These experts need to teach the General AI with their contextual knowledge that includes not only what, when and where but also why. They have to teach the AI with atomic pieces (Knowledge Items, KI) that can be indexed and prioritized by the AI. Context and indexing enable this KIs to be combined to form many solutions.

KIs created by various IT experts create pooled expertise that is further optimized by machine selection of best knowledge combinations for problem resolution. This type of collaborative learning improves process time task by task. However, the number of possible permutations grows exponentially with added knowledge. Connected to a knowledge core, the General AI continuously optimizes performance by eliminating unnecessary steps and even changing routes based on other contextual learning. And the bigger the semantic graph and knowledge core gets, the better and more dynamically the infrastructure can act in terms of service disruptions.

On a final note, do not underestimate the "power of we"! Our research at Arago revealed that with an overlap of 33 percent in basic knowledge, this knowledge can and is used outside a specific organizational environment, i.e. across different client environments. The reuse of knowledge within a client is up to 80 percent. Thus, exchanging basic knowledge within a community becomes imperative from an efficiency perspective and improve the abilities of the General AI.

More Stories By Rene Buest

Rene Buest is Director of Market Research & Technology Evangelism at Arago. Prior to that he was Senior Analyst and Cloud Practice Lead at Crisp Research, Principal Analyst at New Age Disruption and member of the worldwide Gigaom Research Analyst Network. At this time he was considered a top cloud computing analyst in Germany and one of the worldwide top analysts in this area. In addition, he was one of the world’s top cloud computing influencers and belongs to the top 100 cloud computing experts on Twitter and Google+. Since the mid-90s he is focused on the strategic use of information technology in businesses and the IT impact on our society as well as disruptive technologies.

Rene Buest is the author of numerous professional technology articles. He regularly writes for well-known IT publications like Computerwoche, CIO Magazin, LANline as well as Silicon.de and is cited in German and international media – including New York Times, Forbes Magazin, Handelsblatt, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Wirtschaftswoche, Computerwoche, CIO, Manager Magazin and Harvard Business Manager. Furthermore he is speaker and participant of experts rounds. He is founder of CloudUser.de and writes about cloud computing, IT infrastructure, technologies, management and strategies. He holds a diploma in computer engineering from the Hochschule Bremen (Dipl.-Informatiker (FH)) as well as a M.Sc. in IT-Management and Information Systems from the FHDW Paderborn.

@MicroservicesExpo Stories
Is advanced scheduling in Kubernetes achievable? Yes, however, how do you properly accommodate every real-life scenario that a Kubernetes user might encounter? How do you leverage advanced scheduling techniques to shape and describe each scenario in easy-to-use rules and configurations? In his session at @DevOpsSummit at 21st Cloud Expo, Oleg Chunikhin, CTO at Kublr, will answer these questions and demonstrate techniques for implementing advanced scheduling. For example, using spot instances ...
We all know that end users experience the Internet primarily with mobile devices. From an app development perspective, we know that successfully responding to the needs of mobile customers depends on rapid DevOps – failing fast, in short, until the right solution evolves in your customers' relationship to your business. Whether you’re decomposing an SOA monolith, or developing a new application cloud natively, it’s not a question of using microservices – not doing so will be a path to eventual b...
Transforming cloud-based data into a reportable format can be a very expensive, time-intensive and complex operation. As a SaaS platform with more than 30 million global users, Cornerstone OnDemand’s challenge was to create a scalable solution that would improve the time it took customers to access their user data. Our Real-Time Data Warehouse (RTDW) process vastly reduced data time-to-availability from 24 hours to just 10 minutes. In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Mark Goldin, Chief Technolo...
Digital transformation leaders have poured tons of money and effort into coding in recent years. And with good reason. To succeed at digital, you must be able to write great code. You also have to build a strong Agile culture so your coding efforts tightly align with market signals and business outcomes. But if your investments in testing haven’t kept pace with your investments in coding, you’ll lose. But if your investments in testing haven’t kept pace with your investments in coding, you’ll...
In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Michael Burley, a Senior Business Development Executive in IT Services at NetApp, will describe how NetApp designed a three-year program of work to migrate 25PB of a major telco's enterprise data to a new STaaS platform, and then secured a long-term contract to manage and operate the platform. This significant program blended the best of NetApp’s solutions and services capabilities to enable this telco’s successful adoption of private cloud storage and launchi...
Enterprises are adopting Kubernetes to accelerate the development and the delivery of cloud-native applications. However, sharing a Kubernetes cluster between members of the same team can be challenging. And, sharing clusters across multiple teams is even harder. Kubernetes offers several constructs to help implement segmentation and isolation. However, these primitives can be complex to understand and apply. As a result, it’s becoming common for enterprises to end up with several clusters. Thi...
Containers are rapidly finding their way into enterprise data centers, but change is difficult. How do enterprises transform their architecture with technologies like containers without losing the reliable components of their current solutions? In his session at @DevOpsSummit at 21st Cloud Expo, Tony Campbell, Director, Educational Services at CoreOS, will explore the challenges organizations are facing today as they move to containers and go over how Kubernetes applications can deploy with lega...
Today most companies are adopting or evaluating container technology - Docker in particular - to speed up application deployment, drive down cost, ease management and make application delivery more flexible overall. As with most new architectures, this dream takes significant work to become a reality. Even when you do get your application componentized enough and packaged properly, there are still challenges for DevOps teams to making the shift to continuous delivery and achieving that reducti...
DevOps at Cloud Expo, taking place October 31 - November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 21st Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The widespread success of cloud computing is driving the DevOps revolution in enterprise IT. Now as never before, development teams must communicate and collaborate in a dynamic, 24/7/365 environment. There is no time to w...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cloud Academy has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct. 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Cloud Academy is the leading technology training platform for enterprise multi-cloud infrastructure. Cloud Academy is trusted by leading companies to deliver continuous learning solutions across Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud Platform, and the most...
The last two years has seen discussions about cloud computing evolve from the public / private / hybrid split to the reality that most enterprises will be creating a complex, multi-cloud strategy. Companies are wary of committing all of their resources to a single cloud, and instead are choosing to spread the risk – and the benefits – of cloud computing across multiple providers and internal infrastructures, as they follow their business needs. Will this approach be successful? How large is the ...
DevOps is often described as a combination of technology and culture. Without both, DevOps isn't complete. However, applying the culture to outdated technology is a recipe for disaster; as response times grow and connections between teams are delayed by technology, the culture will die. A Nutanix Enterprise Cloud has many benefits that provide the needed base for a true DevOps paradigm. In their Day 3 Keynote at 20th Cloud Expo, Chris Brown, a Solutions Marketing Manager at Nutanix, and Mark Lav...
Many organizations adopt DevOps to reduce cycle times and deliver software faster; some take on DevOps to drive higher quality and better end-user experience; others look to DevOps for a clearer line-of-sight to customers to drive better business impacts. In truth, these three foundations go together. In this power panel at @DevOpsSummit 21st Cloud Expo, moderated by DevOps Conference Co-Chair Andi Mann, industry experts will discuss how leading organizations build application success from all...
DevSecOps – a trend around transformation in process, people and technology – is about breaking down silos and waste along the software development lifecycle and using agile methodologies, automation and insights to help get apps to market faster. This leads to higher quality apps, greater trust in organizations, less organizational friction, and ultimately a five-star customer experience. These apps are the new competitive currency in this digital economy and they’re powered by data. Without ...
A common misconception about the cloud is that one size fits all. Companies expecting to run all of their operations using one cloud solution or service must realize that doing so is akin to forcing the totality of their business functionality into a straightjacket. Unlocking the full potential of the cloud means embracing the multi-cloud future where businesses use their own cloud, and/or clouds from different vendors, to support separate functions or product groups. There is no single cloud so...
For most organizations, the move to hybrid cloud is now a question of when, not if. Fully 82% of enterprises plan to have a hybrid cloud strategy this year, according to Infoholic Research. The worldwide hybrid cloud computing market is expected to grow about 34% annually over the next five years, reaching $241.13 billion by 2022. Companies are embracing hybrid cloud because of the many advantages it offers compared to relying on a single provider for all of their cloud needs. Hybrid offers bala...
With the modern notion of digital transformation, enterprises are chipping away at the fundamental organizational and operational structures that have been with us since the nineteenth century or earlier. One remarkable casualty: the business process. Business processes have become so ingrained in how we envision large organizations operating and the roles people play within them that relegating them to the scrap heap is almost unimaginable, and unquestionably transformative. In the Digital ...
These days, APIs have become an integral part of the digital transformation journey for all enterprises. Every digital innovation story is connected to APIs . But have you ever pondered over to know what are the source of these APIs? Let me explain - APIs sources can be varied, internal or external, solving different purposes, but mostly categorized into the following two categories. Data lakes is a term used to represent disconnected but relevant data that are used by various business units wit...
The nature of the technology business is forward-thinking. It focuses on the future and what’s coming next. Innovations and creativity in our world of software development strive to improve the status quo and increase customer satisfaction through speed and increased connectivity. Yet, while it's exciting to see enterprises embrace new ways of thinking and advance their processes with cutting edge technology, it rarely happens rapidly or even simultaneously across all industries.
It has never been a better time to be a developer! Thanks to cloud computing, deploying our applications is much easier than it used to be. How we deploy our apps continues to evolve thanks to cloud hosting, Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), and now Function-as-a-Service. FaaS is the concept of serverless computing via serverless architectures. Software developers can leverage this to deploy an individual "function", action, or piece of business logic. They are expected to start within milliseconds...