Welcome!

SOA & WOA Authors: Carmen Gonzalez, Jason Bloomberg, Lori MacVittie, Trevor Parsons, Keith Cawley

Related Topics: SOA & WOA

SOA & WOA: Article

Moving Toward the Zero Latency Enterprise

Moving Toward the Zero Latency Enterprise

The Internet makes it possible to deliver information almost instantaneously - anytime, anywhere - and is redefining the traditional boundaries around organizations and their IT systems. The Internet has turned buyers into sellers, sellers into buyers, and set new expectations for how services should be delivered. These expectations raise the bar for applications in terms of their need for interconnectivity and responsiveness. For businesses to remain competitive in this environment - or in the case of government agencies, responsive - they must embrace the idea that speed not only matters, but that it is now a key discriminator. Enterprises able to leverage the Internet's real-time nature and its technologies create competitive advantages that let them reap the benefits of greater efficiency, responsiveness, market share, and profitability. This promise has led businesses to look to interconnect their enterprise resource management (ERM), supply chain management (SCM), and customer relationship management (CRM) systems, both internally and externally; and government agencies to look for better ways to connect their systems with the public, their suppliers, and each other.

The Gartner Group coined the term "zero latency enterprise (ZLE)" to describe organizations that can exchange information with employees, trading partners and customers in near real time). The original focus was on internal systems, but much of what Gartner said applies equally to eliminating latency between internal and external systems. Figure 1 illustrates many of the concepts underpinning ZLE. In a ZLE organization, business events trigger system events that post actions and send responses throughout the enterprise. Bill Gates calls this level of interconnectivity a "digital nervous system." Like the human nervous system, the applications in a ZLE organization interconnect in such a way that they eliminate latency, which is the time gap between when the system receives information at one point and uses it, wherever needed, at others.

 

Becoming a ZLE
Transforming your organization into a ZLE is a three-phase process. You must understand where latency exists within your current processes and systems and your options for reducing or eliminating it. You must then create an architecture that focuses on minimizing latency along the critical path of as many business processes as possible. Finally, you must translate the architecture into an implementation plan that provides the roadmap for yours becoming a ZLE organization.

The first step in becoming a ZLE organization is identifying the major business processes within your organization that the ZLE architecture must support. One goal at this stage is to establish the architectural boundaries of the effort; will it deal with internal systems, external systems, or both? Another goal is to understand the dynamics of each business process: its tempo, meter, natural pauses and breaks. Understanding these dynamics is critical to recognizing latency and bounding the parameters for fixing it. It is important to remember that what constitutes latency in one process may be completely acceptable in another, even for the same application.

The next step is to decompose each business process into its applications and identify any latency points that exist. You should ask: What applications make up this process? Is latency a problem in either the overall process or one or more of its supporting applications? If so, how much of a problem? How much does its timing need to change? The result of asking and answering these questions is a list of business processes and applications that have latency problems.

Next you need to learn as much as possible about each latency point so that you can later devise techniques for removing, or at least minimizing, the latency. For internal systems, latency stems from several root causes (see Figure 2). Legacy systems are often stovepiped applications that were developed independently, over time, using different technologies. These applications create islands of information and functionality that are by their very nature difficult to integrate and share.

 

The same data belonging to different applications may be in different formats, follow different data validation and business rules, or be updated through completely different business processes. Interfaces within these older applications tend to be synchronous, tightly coupled, and driven more by the underlying technologies than the business needs they serve. Proprietary drivers, proprietary APIs, and proprietary formats represent only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to tying these systems together. One question you should ask is: What are each application's processing characteristics: batch, on-demand, or continuously running? Some may be batch oriented where you need them to be real time, others may have availability and reliability problems in cases where you need them to be 24x7. These issues frequently reflect age and technology differences that increase the difficulties in creating a coherent architecture.

Latency's causes multiply when you look at connecting internal and external systems. Each external system potentially represents a different set of technology, security, reliability, and manageability characteristics that your architecture must address.

The Architecture
At the end of the first phase, you should have a good understanding of your organization's internal and external business processes and the latency points you need to address within each. You're now ready to lay out the major business processes and applications and begin developing an overall ZLE architecture. It's important that your architecture address four key elements: business process management, data communications and routing, data transformation and formatting, and applications connectivity.

Business process management is, in my opinion, the most important part of the architecture; it's the glue that ties applications together. It should reflect the enterprise's business processes: assembling, sequencing, and orchestrating applications to align them with the business's natural processes and work flows. A workflow manager, a rules engine, and collaborative tools can be critical components at this level. Employees, business partners, and customers should find easy-to-use, intuitive interfaces supporting your core business processes.

Data communications and routing in conjunction with business process management create the central nervous system for the ZLE architecture. Two fundamental architectures, shown in Figure 3, have evolved in this area: hub-and-spoke; and data, or information, bus. The hub-and-spoke architecture uses a central integration engine and message queuing products, such as MQSeries and MSMQ, to integrate across applications. In this architecture, applications deal with one another through the central hub; this is responsible for extracting, transforming, and routing data and coordinating activities throughout the overall system.

 

The information bus architecture takes a decentralized approach. This architecture implements a common messaging framework, frequently using a publish and subscribe model, for intercommunication. Applications connect to this bus through application adapters and pass messages to one another by placing them onto the bus. The information bus may use either a messaging or workflow manager to assist in routing messages. You can use either architecture internally; the information bus is clearly superior when connecting between internal and external systems.

XML has become the lingua franca for solving the data transformation and formatting problem. It provides a flexible, extensible syntax for expressing both information and its structure in a meaningful format. Legacy applications can apply Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLTs) to XML documents to convert information within those documents into whatever format they need. Data transfer and replication tools are also available for extracting, transforming, cleansing, and loading data for those wanting to make minimum modifications to existing applications.

Application integration can occur at many different levels (see Figure 4). A key question is whether there is overlap in the data the applications process or the business rules they enforce. User interface integration integrates applications at the presentation layer. This level of integration is valuable for connecting independent applications into common business processes. Data integration integrates applications at the database level by copying, transferring, or replicating information from one data source to another. This is a good strategy when transfers are timely and business rules are sufficiently compatible. Business logic integration integrates applications' middle tiers, allowing each application to retain its original business rules and logic. This level of integration works best for tying existing, interdependent applications together into more streamlined processes. Component integration integrates applications through their application programming interfaces (APIs), common components, or function calls. Integration at this level may require you to write proxy interfaces for some components; change call interfaces from direct to RPC for others; or adopt a distributed object model such as DCOM, CORBA, or Web services. This integration form is most useful for creating components several applications or processes can share.

 

A critical part of the application integration analysis is looking closely at each latency point to determine both the level of integration and corrections needed. The first step is to identify the appropriate integration level for each application: presentation, business logic, or data. Simply changing the application's invocation characteristics may be enough to also change its latency characteristics for some applications.

In situations where that is not the case, the next step is to drill down into the application and its interfaces with an eye towards improving the application's performance characteristics. The first, and simplest, corrective measure is to identify and remove any inefficiencies or chokepoints within the application. A second option is to look at overlapping the application's processing with that of others by making it an asynchronous process. Making an application asynchronous is straight-forward; you simply need to add a queue and alerting and rendezvous mechanisms. This can also be a good approach for dealing with reliability and availability problems caused by older systems. A third, and sometimes only, option is to redesign and rewrite the application.

You may need to make several passes through each of the four architectural elements to finalize the ZLE architecture. That isn't unusual. It's important that you come away with an overall architectural strategy, a list of integration points, and an idea of the integration strategies you'll need to address as part of the implementation process, which is the next step. Before proceeding to the implementation phase, it's a good idea to create a set of guiding principles to help in making architectural tradeoffs and selecting products. Questions you should answer include: Are the number or types of products you use of concern? How about the amount of code you write? Is it important to use the same solution for solving the latency problem between both internal and external applications? Is it important to use the same integration solution for integration points at the same level? Do you have large investments in ERM, SCM, or CRM solutions that will drive the implementation? With the answers to these questions in hand, you're now ready to look at options for implementing the architecture.

Implementation
Web services provides a lightweight, standards-based solution for implementing a ZLE architecture. Web services offers an integration model that brings applications together as loosely coupled components within a larger architectural framework. This standards-based framework closely aligns to the four elements in the ZLE architecture (see Figure 5). Business Process Execution Language for Web Services (BPEL4WS) and WS-Choreography are standards proposals for modeling, defining, orchestrating, and implementing business processes. WS-Transaction and WS-Security supply protocols for implementing atomic and business transactions, and security features such as authentication and encryption that are necessary for tying applications together into new business processes. The Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), HTTP, and TCP/IP create the backbone for data communications. WS-Routing, and WS-Referral address the data routing problem.

 

XML, which is the heart of Web services, provides a standard for data representation. XSLT adds a language for data transformation and formatting. SOAP-RPC contributes a lightweight, standards-based, platform-independent component model for implementing distributed components. In short, Web services provides all the elements necessary to implement whatever ZLE architecture you ultimately develop. With several of the standards still evolving, the issue is that products lag behind standards; that means you have to write more code.

If that is a concern, off-the-shelf enterprise application integration (EAI) products offer a good foundation for moving towards a ZLE organization. EAI products provide message broker and adapter technologies that quickly integrate applications to exchange and share information at the data, business logic, or presentation layers. Most EAI solutions implement either a message broker or bus concept corresponding to the hub-and-spoke and information bus architectures. If you decide this is the best approach for you, choose a product that fits into your overall integration strategy by providing the greatest number of integration adapters corresponding to the integration levels, points, and products you identified as part of your analysis.

EAI and Web services are extremely powerful together - EAI for fine-grained interfaces, Web services for coarse-grained interfaces. Many EAI vendors, such as SeeBeyond, TIBCO, webMethods, and IBM, recognize this synergy and offer products that are in fact a marriage between traditional EAI technologies and Web services. These products give you a best of both worlds option. Ultimately, the question boils down to which strategy works best with your architecture within your organization.

Summary
The costs of not becoming a ZLE organization are high; they translate to frustrated customers, disappointed partners, and missed opportunities. The challenges are in understanding critical business processes and developing an architecture that removes the problems creating latency both in the enterprise's internal systems and in their connections to systems be-longing to trading partners and customers. Web services standards, which EAI products are rapidly adapting, lay out the framework you need for implementing this architecture. As more companies adopt them, low cost, standards-based solutions for implementing ZLE applications may finally become a reality.

More Stories By Rickland Hollar

Rickland Hollar is a senior applications architect with the Central Intelligence Agency with over 30 years of experience in the industry. The views expressed in this article are his own and not necessarily those of the Agency. Prior to joining the CIA, he was president of a Virginia-based software development firm.

Comments (1) View Comments

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


Most Recent Comments
Wil Marshman 09/08/03 05:17:13 PM EDT

We [HP's NonStop Enterprise Division (NED), aka Tandem] picked up on ZLE several years ago and have produced a framework [as a product/solution] to facilitate customers doing what Holler describes. The Real Time Enterprise is an idea whose time has come [I assert that certain data needs to be accessible in real time for an enterprise to function effectively and many of our IT systems are not amenable to the changes required, mostly due to the silos that enterprises have built].

My point is that there are companies who can make the journey that Mr. Hollar describes easier. HP's ZLE implementation is ahead of the game.

Wil

@ThingsExpo Stories
The Internet of Things (IoT) is going to require a new way of thinking and of developing software for speed, security and innovation. This requires IT leaders to balance business as usual while anticipating for the next market and technology trends. Cloud provides the right IT asset portfolio to help today’s IT leaders manage the old and prepare for the new. Today the cloud conversation is evolving from private and public to hybrid. This session will provide use cases and insights to reinforce the value of the network in helping organizations to maximize their company’s cloud experience.
Cultural, regulatory, environmental, political and economic (CREPE) conditions over the past decade are creating cross-industry solution spaces that require processes and technologies from both the Internet of Things (IoT), and Data Management and Analytics (DMA). These solution spaces are evolving into Sensor Analytics Ecosystems (SAE) that represent significant new opportunities for organizations of all types. Public Utilities throughout the world, providing electricity, natural gas and water, are pursuing SmartGrid initiatives that represent one of the more mature examples of SAE. We have spoken with, or attended presentations from, utilities in the United States, South America, Asia and Europe. This session will provide a look at the CREPE drivers for SmartGrids and the solution spaces used by SmartGrids today and planned for the near future. All organizations can learn from SmartGrid’s use of Predictive Maintenance, Demand Prediction, Cloud, Big Data and Customer-facing Dashboards...
All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices – computers, smartphones, tablets, and sensors – connected to the Internet by 2020. This number will continue to grow at a rapid pace for the next several decades. With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo in Silicon Valley. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be!
Noted IoT expert and researcher Joseph di Paolantonio (pictured below) has joined the @ThingsExpo faculty. Joseph, who describes himself as an “Independent Thinker” from DataArchon, will speak on the topic of “Smart Grids & Managing Big Utilities.” Over his career, Joseph di Paolantonio has worked in the energy, renewables, aerospace, telecommunications, and information technology industries. His expertise is in data analysis, system engineering, Bayesian statistics, data warehouses, business intelligence, data mining, predictive methods, and very large databases (VLDB). Prior to DataArchon, he served as a VP and Principal Analyst with Constellation Group. He is a member of the Boulder (Colo.) Brain Trust, an organization with a mission “to benefit the Business Intelligence and data management industry by providing pro bono exchange of information between vendors and independent analysts on new trends and technologies and to provide vendors with constructive feedback on their of...
Software AG helps organizations transform into Digital Enterprises, so they can differentiate from competitors and better engage customers, partners and employees. Using the Software AG Suite, companies can close the gap between business and IT to create digital systems of differentiation that drive front-line agility. We offer four on-ramps to the Digital Enterprise: alignment through collaborative process analysis; transformation through portfolio management; agility through process automation and integration; and visibility through intelligent business operations and big data.
There will be 50 billion Internet connected devices by 2020. Today, every manufacturer has a propriety protocol and an app. How do we securely integrate these "things" into our lives and businesses in a way that we can easily control and manage? Even better, how do we integrate these "things" so that they control and manage each other so our lives become more convenient or our businesses become more profitable and/or safe? We have heard that the best interface is no interface. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Chris Matthieu, Co-Founder & CTO at Octoblu, Inc., will discuss how these devices generate enough data to learn our behaviors and simplify/improve our lives. What if we could connect everything to everything? I'm not only talking about connecting things to things but also systems, cloud services, and people. Add in a little machine learning and artificial intelligence and now we have something interesting...
Last week, while in San Francisco, I used the Uber app and service four times. All four experiences were great, although one of the drivers stopped for 30 seconds and then left as I was walking up to the car. He must have realized I was a blogger. None the less, the next car was just a minute away and I suffered no pain. In this article, my colleague, Ved Sen, Global Head, Advisory Services Social, Mobile and Sensors at Cognizant shares his experiences and insights.
We are reaching the end of the beginning with WebRTC and real systems using this technology have begun to appear. One challenge that faces every WebRTC deployment (in some form or another) is identity management. For example, if you have an existing service – possibly built on a variety of different PaaS/SaaS offerings – and you want to add real-time communications you are faced with a challenge relating to user management, authentication, authorization, and validation. Service providers will want to use their existing identities, but these will have credentials already that are (hopefully) irreversibly encoded. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Peter Dunkley, Technical Director at Acision, will look at how this identity problem can be solved and discuss ways to use existing web identities for real-time communication.
Can call centers hang up the phones for good? Intuitive Solutions did. WebRTC enabled this contact center provider to eliminate antiquated telephony and desktop phone infrastructure with a pure web-based solution, allowing them to expand beyond brick-and-mortar confines to a home-based agent model. It also ensured scalability and better service for customers, including MUY! Companies, one of the country's largest franchise restaurant companies with 232 Pizza Hut locations. This is one example of WebRTC adoption today, but the potential is limitless when powered by IoT. Attendees will learn real-world benefits of WebRTC and explore future possibilities, as WebRTC and IoT intersect to improve customer service.
From telemedicine to smart cars, digital homes and industrial monitoring, the explosive growth of IoT has created exciting new business opportunities for real time calls and messaging. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Ivelin Ivanov, CEO and Co-Founder of Telestax, will share some of the new revenue sources that IoT created for Restcomm – the open source telephony platform from Telestax. Ivelin Ivanov is a technology entrepreneur who founded Mobicents, an Open Source VoIP Platform, to help create, deploy, and manage applications integrating voice, video and data. He is the co-founder of TeleStax, an Open Source Cloud Communications company that helps the shift from legacy IN/SS7 telco networks to IP-based cloud comms. An early investor in multiple start-ups, he still finds time to code for his companies and contribute to open source projects.
The Internet of Things (IoT) promises to create new business models as significant as those that were inspired by the Internet and the smartphone 20 and 10 years ago. What business, social and practical implications will this phenomenon bring? That's the subject of "Monetizing the Internet of Things: Perspectives from the Front Lines," an e-book released today and available free of charge from Aria Systems, the leading innovator in recurring revenue management.
The Internet of Things will put IT to its ultimate test by creating infinite new opportunities to digitize products and services, generate and analyze new data to improve customer satisfaction, and discover new ways to gain a competitive advantage across nearly every industry. In order to help corporate business units to capitalize on the rapidly evolving IoT opportunities, IT must stand up to a new set of challenges.
There’s Big Data, then there’s really Big Data from the Internet of Things. IoT is evolving to include many data possibilities like new types of event, log and network data. The volumes are enormous, generating tens of billions of logs per day, which raise data challenges. Early IoT deployments are relying heavily on both the cloud and managed service providers to navigate these challenges. In her session at 6th Big Data Expo®, Hannah Smalltree, Director at Treasure Data, to discuss how IoT, Big Data and deployments are processing massive data volumes from wearables, utilities and other machines.
P2P RTC will impact the landscape of communications, shifting from traditional telephony style communications models to OTT (Over-The-Top) cloud assisted & PaaS (Platform as a Service) communication services. The P2P shift will impact many areas of our lives, from mobile communication, human interactive web services, RTC and telephony infrastructure, user federation, security and privacy implications, business costs, and scalability. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Erik Lagerway, Co-founder of Hookflash, will walk through the shifting landscape of traditional telephone and voice services to the modern P2P RTC era of OTT cloud assisted services.
While great strides have been made relative to the video aspects of remote collaboration, audio technology has basically stagnated. Typically all audio is mixed to a single monaural stream and emanates from a single point, such as a speakerphone or a speaker associated with a video monitor. This leads to confusion and lack of understanding among participants especially regarding who is actually speaking. Spatial teleconferencing introduces the concept of acoustic spatial separation between conference participants in three dimensional space. This has been shown to significantly improve comprehension and conference efficiency.
The Internet of Things is tied together with a thin strand that is known as time. Coincidentally, at the core of nearly all data analytics is a timestamp. When working with time series data there are a few core principles that everyone should consider, especially across datasets where time is the common boundary. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Jim Scott, Director of Enterprise Strategy & Architecture at MapR Technologies, will discuss single-value, geo-spatial, and log time series data. By focusing on enterprise applications and the data center, he will use OpenTSDB as an example to explain some of these concepts including when to use different storage models.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Gridstore™, the leader in software-defined storage (SDS) purpose-built for Windows Servers and Hyper-V, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 15th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Gridstore™ is the leader in software-defined storage purpose built for virtualization that is designed to accelerate applications in virtualized environments. Using its patented Server-Side Virtual Controller™ Technology (SVCT) to eliminate the I/O blender effect and accelerate applications Gridstore delivers vmOptimized™ Storage that self-optimizes to each application or VM across both virtual and physical environments. Leveraging a grid architecture, Gridstore delivers the first end-to-end storage QoS to ensure the most important App or VM performance is never compromised. The storage grid, that uses Gridstore’s performance optimized nodes or capacity optimized nodes, starts with as few a...
The Transparent Cloud-computing Consortium (abbreviation: T-Cloud Consortium) will conduct research activities into changes in the computing model as a result of collaboration between "device" and "cloud" and the creation of new value and markets through organic data processing High speed and high quality networks, and dramatic improvements in computer processing capabilities, have greatly changed the nature of applications and made the storing and processing of data on the network commonplace. These technological reforms have not only changed computers and smartphones, but are also changing the data processing model for all information devices. In particular, in the area known as M2M (Machine-To-Machine), there are great expectations that information with a new type of value can be produced using a variety of devices and sensors saving/sharing data via the network and through large-scale cloud-type data processing. This consortium believes that attaching a huge number of devic...
Innodisk is a service-driven provider of industrial embedded flash and DRAM storage products and technologies, with a focus on the enterprise, industrial, aerospace, and defense industries. Innodisk is dedicated to serving their customers and business partners. Quality is vitally important when it comes to industrial embedded flash and DRAM storage products. That’s why Innodisk manufactures all of their products in their own purpose-built memory production facility. In fact, they designed and built their production center to maximize manufacturing efficiency and guarantee the highest quality of our products.
All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices - computers, smartphones, tablets, and sensors - connected to the Internet by 2020. This number will continue to grow at a rapid pace for the next several decades. Over the summer Gartner released its much anticipated annual Hype Cycle report and the big news is that Internet of Things has now replaced Big Data as the most hyped technology. Indeed, we're hearing more and more about this fascinating new technological paradigm. Every other IT news item seems to be about IoT and its implications on the future of digital business.