Welcome!

Microservices Expo Authors: Pat Romanski, Dalibor Siroky, Stackify Blog, Elizabeth White, Liz McMillan

Related Topics: Microservices Expo

Microservices Expo: Article

SOA Adoption Models

Ad hoc versus program-based

SOA Adoption Models
We have encountered various approaches that enterprises are taking for migrating to and adopting SOA for their enterprises. We list the following models in this article that we have come across consistently: ad hoc and program-based (organic and strategic) models.

The Ad Hoc SOA Adoption Model
Ad hoc SOA adoption is the project-level adoption of service-oriented technologies on a specific need or tactical basis. There is no central coordination or plan. The results of this adoption model are:
• Each project or initiative benefits the technical advantages of new services at an individual level.
• The technologies are applied inconsistently, which allows for proliferation of bad SOA practices, such as the development of non-standard Web Services, hidden pockets of cost in one-off maintenance, low-level of service reuse, increase in point-to-point Web Services connectivity, etc
• Enterprise reuse can't be achieved and can therefore yield redundant development efforts.
• Increased IT complexity, resulting in reduced agility for responding to business demands
• Potentially resulting in worse condition than the previous status quo.

It's clear that businesses need to invest in a strategy for SOA adoption that will address business drivers, improve existing IT challenges, and avoid the negative impact of unplanned ad hoc SOA adoption. Depending on the organization's goals and level of investment, SOA adoption can be planned in accordance with an overall program.

The Program-based SOA Adoption Model
Program-based SOA adoption allows SOA evolution to be controlled according to an overarching enterprise strategy and goals. This model provides a holistic view and addresses the enterprise from organizational, process, and technology dimensions over time. A planned and directed SOA adoption strategy eliminates the risk of propagating SOA bad practices that will worsen the IT situation. Some key characteristics of a program-based approach are:
• Creates processes and guidelines that support desirable, consistent, predictable, and measurable outcomes for SOA adoption.
• Provides active service portfolio management, including ongoing SOA opportunity identification.
• Promotes SOA best practices and enhances one's ability to adopt new technology paradigm consistently across the enterprise as well as increase SOA ROI
• Provides an opportunity for changes to the organization and processes as learning can be applied to further strengthen the SOA ROI.

We'll consider two program-based SOA adoption models: organic and strategic. Both provide planned and controlled adoption behaviors. The difference in these models is how they are initiated and the pace of adoption. (See Sidebar)

The Program-based Organic SOA Adoption Model
Organic SOA adoption model requires low investment. It allows:
• Quick understanding and alignment of key business drivers with SOA objectives
• Execution of a prioritized project using SOA principles
• Development of core (base line) processes
• Building foundation technologies that can be used for successive SOA projects.

In an organic adoption model of SOA, one builds a business case from the findings of the initial project. Base line standards, best practices, processes, and organization structure are created and then evolved. The initial project rarely provides a positive ROI due to the cost associated with additional planning and the SOA infrastructure build-out. However, the organic model shows that incremental benefits will be achieved through SOA on successive projects. SOA does not require a full enterprise implementation to begin to realize value. Investments in the infrastructure can be aligned on a project basis to reduce risk. The value can be realized earlier without a comprehensive SOA strategy.

Figure 1 shows the typical progression of the organic SOA adoption model. The initial project is chosen opportunistically from existing planned projects according to agreed upon criteria. The project is executed with the original scope in mind and a specific business problem is solved. SOA artifacts and processes used on the project are then harvested. Incremental SOA costs are absorbed by the initial project and are recouped by the business in subsequent SOA projects.

The Program-based Strategic SOA Adoption Model
As an alternative to the organic approach, the strategic SOA adoption model is characterized by an initial strategy project to build an enterprise business case for SOA, define a future state, and plan a roadmap for implementation. The future state incorporates not only the technology transformation required to move towards SOA, but also the organizational and process changes as well. (Figure 2)

Organizations adopting SOA through a strategic model build out a supporting infrastructure for enterprise SOA with a reference implementation that demonstrates the recommended use of standards and best practices.

The roadmap of strategic SOA is based on a comprehensive assessment of the enterprise and defines SOA projects over a three- to five-year timeframe. It takes into account all the dimensions of an enterprise: people, processes, and technology (see Figure 3). NOTE: We need to redraw this visual differently. It was done for PMUSA with ToPCoder).

SOA Adoption Recommendations
While there are clear tradeoffs between the organic and strategic SOA adoption models, there are four key adoption recommendations for any successful program-based SOA. They are:
• Align SOA objectives with business drivers
• Selectively determine SOA adopters
• Identify and address organizational barriers to adoption
• Define and measure success

Align SOA objectives with business drivers
Since SOA is a set of best practices and related standards that can be applied uniquely on each implementation, implementation can produce a variety of benefits. There's a risk of misfiring or misinterpretation when SOA objectives aren't clearly aligned with business drivers. To be effective, SOA implementation objectives have to be in alignment with the enterprise imperatives for both organic and strategic adoption. In both organic and strategic SOA adoption, SOA objectives need to be documented that can:
• Support the business case for SOA
• Align the architecture with the needs of the business
• Act as a reference for developing a future-state reference architecture
• Prioritize the approach for potential projects and a SOA roadmap

SOA strategy should begin by understanding the enterprise imperatives - a successful business plan takes the external environment, business and IT strategy, and current and planned projects into account. SOA objectives are best identified collaboratively in a workshop environment with key SOA stakeholders from business and IT leaders along with user communities. With enterprise imperatives identified, SOA objectives can be well articulated and prioritized across functional units of the value chain.

Earlier we showed you typical business drivers for SOA (Table 1). SOA objectives for the enterprise can be an extension of these kinds of drivers prioritized and aligned with the enterprise imperatives. For example, the first business driver - lower cost of IT - simplify the IT infrastructure - can be the basis of a SOA objective and can be extended to state - lower cost of IT - simplify the IT infrastructure by reducing the data redundancies across customer-oriented systems. An SOA objective should relate to a particular business strategy, but not prescribe an implementation approach.


More Stories By Alkesh Shah

Alkesh Shah is a director at Keane Architecture Services.

More Stories By Paul Kalin

Paul Kalin is senior principal enterprise architect at Keane Architecture Services.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@MicroservicesExpo Stories
While some developers care passionately about how data centers and clouds are architected, for most, it is only the end result that matters. To the majority of companies, technology exists to solve a business problem, and only delivers value when it is solving that problem. 2017 brings the mainstream adoption of containers for production workloads. In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Ben McCormack, VP of Operations at Evernote, discussed how data centers of the future will be managed, how the p...
The nature of test environments is inherently temporary—you set up an environment, run through an automated test suite, and then tear down the environment. If you can reduce the cycle time for this process down to hours or minutes, then you may be able to cut your test environment budgets considerably. The impact of cloud adoption on test environments is a valuable advancement in both cost savings and agility. The on-demand model takes advantage of public cloud APIs requiring only payment for t...
It has never been a better time to be a developer! Thanks to cloud computing, deploying our applications is much easier than it used to be. How we deploy our apps continues to evolve thanks to cloud hosting, Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), and now Function-as-a-Service. FaaS is the concept of serverless computing via serverless architectures. Software developers can leverage this to deploy an individual "function", action, or piece of business logic. They are expected to start within milliseconds...
As DevOps methodologies expand their reach across the enterprise, organizations face the daunting challenge of adapting related cloud strategies to ensure optimal alignment, from managing complexity to ensuring proper governance. How can culture, automation, legacy apps and even budget be reexamined to enable this ongoing shift within the modern software factory? In her Day 2 Keynote at @DevOpsSummit at 21st Cloud Expo, Aruna Ravichandran, VP, DevOps Solutions Marketing, CA Technologies, was jo...
You know you need the cloud, but you’re hesitant to simply dump everything at Amazon since you know that not all workloads are suitable for cloud. You know that you want the kind of ease of use and scalability that you get with public cloud, but your applications are architected in a way that makes the public cloud a non-starter. You’re looking at private cloud solutions based on hyperconverged infrastructure, but you’re concerned with the limits inherent in those technologies.
Is advanced scheduling in Kubernetes achievable?Yes, however, how do you properly accommodate every real-life scenario that a Kubernetes user might encounter? How do you leverage advanced scheduling techniques to shape and describe each scenario in easy-to-use rules and configurations? In his session at @DevOpsSummit at 21st Cloud Expo, Oleg Chunikhin, CTO at Kublr, answered these questions and demonstrated techniques for implementing advanced scheduling. For example, using spot instances and co...
The cloud era has reached the stage where it is no longer a question of whether a company should migrate, but when. Enterprises have embraced the outsourcing of where their various applications are stored and who manages them, saving significant investment along the way. Plus, the cloud has become a defining competitive edge. Companies that fail to successfully adapt risk failure. The media, of course, continues to extol the virtues of the cloud, including how easy it is to get there. Migrating...
For DevOps teams, the concepts behind service-oriented architecture (SOA) are nothing new. A style of software design initially made popular in the 1990s, SOA was an alternative to a monolithic application; essentially a collection of coarse-grained components that communicated with each other. Communication would involve either simple data passing or two or more services coordinating some activity. SOA served as a valid approach to solving many architectural problems faced by businesses, as app...
Some journey to cloud on a mission, others, a deadline. Change management is useful when migrating to public, private or hybrid cloud environments in either case. For most, stakeholder engagement peaks during the planning and post migration phases of a project. Legacy engagements are fairly direct: projects follow a linear progression of activities (the “waterfall” approach) – change managers and application coders work from the same functional and technical requirements. Enablement and develo...
Gone are the days when application development was the daunting task of the highly skilled developers backed with strong IT skills, low code application development has democratized app development and empowered a new generation of citizen developers. There was a time when app development was in the domain of people with complex coding and technical skills. We called these people by various names like programmers, coders, techies, and they usually worked in a world oblivious of the everyday pri...
From manual human effort the world is slowly paving its way to a new space where most process are getting replaced with tools and systems to improve efficiency and bring down operational costs. Automation is the next big thing and low code platforms are fueling it in a significant way. The Automation era is here. We are in the fast pace of replacing manual human efforts with machines and processes. In the world of Information Technology too, we are linking disparate systems, softwares and tool...
DevOps is good for organizations. According to the soon to be released State of DevOps Report high-performing IT organizations are 2X more likely to exceed profitability, market share, and productivity goals. But how do they do it? How do they use DevOps to drive value and differentiate their companies? We recently sat down with Nicole Forsgren, CEO and Chief Scientist at DORA (DevOps Research and Assessment) and lead investigator for the State of DevOps Report, to discuss the role of measure...
DevOps is under attack because developers don’t want to mess with infrastructure. They will happily own their code into production, but want to use platforms instead of raw automation. That’s changing the landscape that we understand as DevOps with both architecture concepts (CloudNative) and process redefinition (SRE). Rob Hirschfeld’s recent work in Kubernetes operations has led to the conclusion that containers and related platforms have changed the way we should be thinking about DevOps and...
"As we've gone out into the public cloud we've seen that over time we may have lost a few things - we've lost control, we've given up cost to a certain extent, and then security, flexibility," explained Steve Conner, VP of Sales at Cloudistics,in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 20th Cloud Expo, held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
These days, APIs have become an integral part of the digital transformation journey for all enterprises. Every digital innovation story is connected to APIs . But have you ever pondered over to know what are the source of these APIs? Let me explain - APIs sources can be varied, internal or external, solving different purposes, but mostly categorized into the following two categories. Data lakes is a term used to represent disconnected but relevant data that are used by various business units wit...
With continuous delivery (CD) almost always in the spotlight, continuous integration (CI) is often left out in the cold. Indeed, it's been in use for so long and so widely, we often take the model for granted. So what is CI and how can you make the most of it? This blog is intended to answer those questions. Before we step into examining CI, we need to look back. Software developers often work in small teams and modularity, and need to integrate their changes with the rest of the project code b...
"I focus on what we are calling CAST Highlight, which is our SaaS application portfolio analysis tool. It is an extremely lightweight tool that can integrate with pretty much any build process right now," explained Andrew Siegmund, Application Migration Specialist for CAST, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
"Cloud4U builds software services that help people build DevOps platforms for cloud-based software and using our platform people can draw a picture of the system, network, software," explained Kihyeon Kim, CEO and Head of R&D at Cloud4U, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Kubernetes is an open source system for automating deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications. Kubernetes was originally built by Google, leveraging years of experience with managing container workloads, and is now a Cloud Native Compute Foundation (CNCF) project. Kubernetes has been widely adopted by the community, supported on all major public and private cloud providers, and is gaining rapid adoption in enterprises. However, Kubernetes may seem intimidating and complex ...
DevOps is often described as a combination of technology and culture. Without both, DevOps isn't complete. However, applying the culture to outdated technology is a recipe for disaster; as response times grow and connections between teams are delayed by technology, the culture will die. A Nutanix Enterprise Cloud has many benefits that provide the needed base for a true DevOps paradigm. In their Day 3 Keynote at 20th Cloud Expo, Chris Brown, a Solutions Marketing Manager at Nutanix, and Mark Lav...