|By Scott Hanselman||
|July 21, 2003 11:54 AM EDT||
Certainly .NET represents a fantastic leap in developer productivity and puts a clean, consistent face on the services that the Windows Platform provides. For many years the set of interfaces provided by the Windows OS Platform - collectively known as the Windows SDK - have been exposed to developers as exported "C"-style functions in DLLs, and in recent years, via the Component Object Model (COM).
Common Language Runtime or Virtual Machine?
Often the .NET Common Language Runtime, or CLR, is directly compared to the Java Virtual Machine. Initially, there are many clear parallels: both are "managed" environments that provide a component container, both consume a "partially chewed" intermediate language, both provide low-level services like garbage collection and threading conveniences.
Sun promotes a marketing program called 100% Pure Java, which is certainly appropriate if code portability and underlying operating system transparency is a desirable endpoint. However, many 3rd party Java Application Servers create a competitive advantage by judicious use of "C" function calls directly down (via Java Native Interface or JNI) into their host Operating Systems value-added services that are not exposed by the Java Application Platform (the Java Class Library). Calling into the core platform is the only way to make use of base functionality that is only presented via a native interface!
The Java VM is truly a "virtual machine" that's ultimate goal is to abstract (virtualize) away the underlying Operating System and provide an idealized (not necessarily ideal, but idealized) environment for development. The Java Virtual machine is also intimately united with the API - the Java Application Platform, which services provided by the VM implementation. Regardless of where you run your compiled Java code, you will run within the context of the Virtual Machine and ostensibly link with supplied Java Platform APIs.
The .NET Common Language Runtime is named well as it is used more as a Language Runtime than a Virtual Machine. While it successfully abstracts away aspects of underlying hardware through its use of an Intermediate Language, when the CLR is combined with the .NET Framework Library of APIs it is married to the underlying platform, which is Windows. The CLR provides all the facilities of the Windows Platform to any .NET-enabled Language.
.NET Framework Library
The Windows Platform has dozens and dozens of high-level system services that are exposed by thousands of APIs. This large library of functionality encompasses various levels of richness. A low-level API may open a file off a disk, while a high-level one might play an audio file. The designers of the .NET Framework wanted to create a consistent object-oriented face on a rich legacy of platform functionality. The CLR and .NET Framework work together to expose the capabilities within the Windows Platform, including those that may have previously been hidden away in difficult or little known APIs.
While the CLR provides a new paradigm for application development, it does not close the door on existing libraries. The CLR provides interop services to the developer but the biggest consumer of these services are the .NET Class Libraries that unlock existing Windows Platform abilities via a .NET API!
For example, when sending email using the .NET Framework Library class System.Web.Mail.SmtpMail, the Class Library uses a helper class that abstracts the existing CDO (Collaboration Data Objects) COM Library. This is just one example where a .NET Library developer chose to rely on a production-ready reliable existing library rather than write something from scratch. This example and dozens of others with the Library not withstanding, the Common Language Runtime still at some point needs to work with the Windows internal APIs.
If Microsoft were to truly virtualize the machine, they would have marginalized their investment in the Windows platform. Certainly it behooved the designers to make transitions to existing libraries as painless as possible. They have enabled this with NET » COM Interop via both Runtime- and COM-Callable Wrappers, the ability to tap into standard Win32 Platform APIs via a technology called P/Invoke (short for Platform Invoke) as well as other options. When writing code that is hosted in the CLR the vast resources of platform are just sitting under the developer - the runtime is transparent rather than virtual! This marks a fundamentally different view of the platform that other virtualizing machine implementations.
While creating a new fresh application using only .NET may offer some benefits in the arenas of deployment or marketing, these benefits may be not realized when weighed against the cost of rewriting non-.NET components in .NET when those legacy components could have been leveraged. A "pure" .NET solution can only make use of either those pieces of functionality that can be achieve entirely within the runtime, or those functions that have been exposed by the Base Class Library - which itself uses COM Interop and P/Invoke!
The .NET Framework Library itself isn't "pure .NET" as it takes every opportunity to take full advantage of the underlying platform primitives. Moreover, the concept of .NET Purity is rendered specious in this new light. The .NET Framework is the best way to create business components on the Windows Platform, but any applications along with the .NET Framework are only lifted as high as the underlying Windows OS services.
"Hybrid" Solutions provide Real Solutions
Many large existing applications are written in Visual C++ and COM. They are written "close to the metal" to take full advantage of native Windows multi-threading and fine-grained memory management. However, new business components may also be written in a .NET language such as C# or VB.NET. The existing system then hosts the .NET Common Language Runtime within its process space and Interops. The interface is usually COM interop but only incurs minimal overhead of between 10 and 40 processor instructions per in-proc call.
.NET Components hosted with in the legacy applicaiton can take advantage of that application's existing services. Lower level developer features such as memory management, object lifetime and object orientation are provided by the CLR, while higher level vertical-specific business functionality is exposed via the legacy application.
This "hybrid" can provide a best-of-breed solution on the Windows Platform exploiting both the highly performant low-level APIs via C++ and the highly componentized and object oriented features of the .NET Framework. These solutions can work very successfully while companies migrate their existing code bases to the .NET Framework.
|Tim Huckaby 07/25/03 07:07:00 PM EDT|
Your comments on system.directory are interesting. Adsi is simply a com wrapper, so technically it?s a ?wrapped wrapper? of the native ldap api which, of course, is c++ only. Being that said, the directory entry class you are referring to is a ?wrapped, wrapped wrapper?. Ultimately, the big disappointment of the .net framework 1.1 and the hope for 2.0 is more native framework classes.
|Derek Ferguson 07/18/03 10:12:00 AM EDT|
I would never suggest that COM Interop should be gotten rid of or is in any way, shape, or form "evil." However, as a developer who spends more than 90% of my coding time working with the System.DirectoryServices and System.Management namespaces, let me tell you -- MS could have save developers a lot of gried by having written some managed protocol handlers here, rather than just wrapping up the old, troubled API's.
As one example of this, the DirectoryEntry class in System.DirectoryServices allows you to pass a username and password to its constructor. However, when you use the WinNT ADSI provider, these parameters are sometimes ignored. Why is this? Because of a limitation in the existing API's that were wrapped!
Similar problems abound in the System.Management namespace -- where I recently managed to prove that Impersonation (a native API) interacts differently with EnablePrivilieges (a wrapped API) under ASP.NET than it does under the Console. In working through this with MS, I have been passed around to 10 different people in their Support infrastructure. Why? Because the old, obscure API's that have been wrapped are a "dark art" that are only known by a few individuals within the Redmond infrastructure.
Once again: it would've been better to have recreated the whole thing in C#.
|Dean Guida 07/25/03 04:00:00 PM EDT|
There is a lot to be said for purity for purity's sake. I have never subscribed to this type of thinking. At the end of the day we all want to build dependable software that solves the business problem at hand. Everything should always be taking in context of a solution with a sense of practicality. I think most of the software development community has this maturity.
|Patrick Hynds 07/17/03 10:16:00 PM EDT|
I think this article is right on, but felt that we should confront the issue of why this kind of rebuttal is needed (and it is needed). We find people who are earnest only in so far as they can justify their existence. Therefore they brand something heresy as soon as they abandon the practice themselves. Lets assume that COM interop was a horrible waste of resource, it still wouldn't justify discarding a tool and the wealth of existing functionality the last generation always holds in such a wholesale manner. I have seen people in ASP circles a while back declare that "Session State is bad". Like hybrid applications Session State in ASP is a tool, use it, don't use it, but if you happen to need a hammer it doesn't make the saw evil.
More and more companies are looking to microservices as an architectural pattern for breaking apart applications into more manageable pieces so that agile teams can deliver new features quicker and more effectively. What this pattern has done more than anything to date is spark organizational transformations, setting the foundation for future application development. In practice, however, there are a number of considerations to make that go beyond simply “build, ship, and run,” which changes ho...
Jun. 25, 2016 09:15 AM EDT Reads: 808
Gartner is now treating algorithms like they are some kind of innovative addition to the modern digital discussion. Presumably the brilliant minds there have some novel insight into algorithms and, yes, the Algorithm Economy that CIOs should sit up and take notice of. Not only are algorithms nothing new, but much of what Gartner is saying about them is obvious. The bigger picture here is that software continues to improve, and enterprises are becoming increasingly software-driven, in part bec...
Jun. 17, 2016 04:07 PM EDT Reads: 786
The Internet of Things is clearly many things: data collection and analytics, wearables, Smart Grids and Smart Cities, the Industrial Internet, and more. Cool platforms like Arduino, Raspberry Pi, Intel's Galileo and Edison, and a diverse world of sensors are making the IoT a great toy box for developers in all these areas. In this Power Panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists discussed what things are the most important, which will have the most profound...
Jun. 12, 2016 09:00 PM EDT Reads: 5,123
The Internet of Things (IoT) is growing rapidly by extending current technologies, products and networks. By 2020, Cisco estimates there will be 50 billion connected devices. Gartner has forecast revenues of over $300 billion, just to IoT suppliers. Now is the time to figure out how you’ll make money – not just create innovative products. With hundreds of new products and companies jumping into the IoT fray every month, there’s no shortage of innovation. Despite this, McKinsey/VisionMobile data...
Jun. 12, 2016 02:45 AM EDT Reads: 3,674
NHK, Japan Broadcasting, will feature the upcoming @ThingsExpo Silicon Valley in a special 'Internet of Things' and smart technology documentary that will be filmed on the expo floor between November 3 to 5, 2015, in Santa Clara. NHK is the sole public TV network in Japan equivalent to the BBC in the UK and the largest in Asia with many award-winning science and technology programs. Japanese TV is producing a documentary about IoT and Smart technology and will be covering @ThingsExpo Silicon Val...
Jun. 8, 2016 10:30 PM EDT Reads: 4,598
SYS-CON Events announced today that Men & Mice, the leading global provider of DNS, DHCP and IP address management overlay solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. The Men & Mice Suite overlay solution is already known for its powerful application in heterogeneous operating environments, enabling enterprises to scale without fuss. Building on a solid range of diverse platform support,...
Jun. 8, 2016 06:45 PM EDT Reads: 4,121
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place June 7-9, 2016 at Javits Center, New York City and Nov 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with the 18th International @CloudExpo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world and ThingsExpo New York Call for Papers is now open.
Jun. 8, 2016 03:45 PM EDT Reads: 3,275
SYS-CON Events announced today that Catchpoint Systems, Inc., a provider of innovative web and infrastructure monitoring solutions, has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's DevOps Summit at 18th Cloud Expo New York, which will take place June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Catchpoint is a leading Digital Performance Analytics company that provides unparalleled insight into customer-critical services to help consistently deliver an amazing customer experience. Designed...
Jun. 8, 2016 03:00 PM EDT Reads: 3,237
@DevOpsSummit taking place June 7-9, 2016 at Javits Center, New York City, and Nov 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with the 18th International @CloudExpo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world.
Jun. 8, 2016 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 4,418
Cloud Expo, Inc. has announced today that Andi Mann returns to 'DevOps at Cloud Expo 2016' as Conference Chair The @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York. "DevOps is set to be one of the most profound disruptions to hit IT in decades," said Andi Mann. "It is a natural extension of cloud computing, and I have seen both firsthand and in independent research the fantastic results DevOps delivers. So I am excited to help the g...
Jun. 8, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 3,697
Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) will feature the upcoming 18th Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo in a New York news documentary about the "New IT for the Future." The documentary will cover how big companies are transmitting or adopting the new IT for the future and will be filmed on the expo floor between June 7-June 9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York. KBS has long been a leader in the development of the broadcasting culture of Korea. As the key public service broadcaster of Korea...
Jun. 8, 2016 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,613
SYS-CON Events announced today that Addteq will exhibit at SYS-CON's @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo New York, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Addteq is one of the top 10 Platinum Atlassian Experts who specialize in DevOps, custom and continuous integration, automation, plugin development, and consulting for midsize and global firms. Addteq firmly believes that automation is essential for successful software releases. Addteq centers its products a...
Jun. 8, 2016 09:45 AM EDT Reads: 2,586
In the rush to compete in the digital age, a successful digital transformation is essential, but many organizations are setting themselves up for failure. There’s a common misconception that the process is just about technology, but it’s not. It’s about your business. It shouldn’t be treated as an isolated IT project; it should be driven by business needs with the committed involvement of a range of stakeholders.
Jun. 8, 2016 02:15 AM EDT Reads: 3,652
SYS-CON Events announced today that FalconStor Software® Inc., a 15-year innovator of software-defined storage solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. FalconStor Software®, Inc. (NASDAQ: FALC) is a leading software-defined storage company offering a converged, hardware-agnostic, software-defined storage and data services platform. Its flagship solution FreeStor®, utilizes a horizonta...
Jun. 7, 2016 07:00 PM EDT Reads: 4,238
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo 2016 in New York and Silicon Valley. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 17th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty ...
Jun. 7, 2016 04:30 PM EDT Reads: 5,972
SYS-CON Events announced today that Column Technologies will exhibit at SYS-CON's @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Established in 1998, Column Technologies is a global technology solutions provider with over 400 employees, headquartered in the United States with offices in Canada, India, and the United Kingdom. Column Technologies provides “Best of Breed” technology solutions that automate the key DevOps principal...
Jun. 7, 2016 04:15 PM EDT Reads: 3,394
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftLayer, an IBM Company, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. SoftLayer, an IBM Company, provides cloud infrastructure as a service from a growing number of data centers and network points of presence around the world. SoftLayer’s customers range from Web startups to global enterprises.
Jun. 7, 2016 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,778
SYS-CON Events announced today that IBM Cloud Data Services has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. IBM Cloud Data Services offers a portfolio of integrated, best-of-breed cloud data services for developers focused on mobile computing and analytics use cases.
Jun. 7, 2016 12:30 PM EDT Reads: 2,819
SYS-CON Events announced today that Anexia will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Anexia offers high-quality customized managed hosting solutions for SaaS and IaaS companies. The company was founded in 2006 in Klagenfurt, Austria. Today, it has additional offices in Vienna, Graz, Munich, Cologne and New York City to serve numerous international customers.
Jun. 7, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,948
SYS-CON Events announced today that Stratoscale, the software company developing the next generation data center operating system, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Stratoscale is revolutionizing the data center with a zero-to-cloud-in-minutes solution. With Stratoscale’s hardware-agnostic, Software Defined Data Center (SDDC) solution to store everything, run anything and scale everywhere...
Jun. 7, 2016 08:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,957