|By Jason Bloomberg||
|June 18, 2014 10:13 AM EDT||
“We have a mess on our hands,” said John, the CIO of an international hospitality and resort enterprise I’ll call Horizon (I’ve fictionalized the story but it’s based on a combination of true stories). “Every line of business wants something different from IT. There’s lodging, resort operations, restaurant operations, facilities management – even housekeeping, and they all want their own apps.”
It’s a familiar story, of course. I needed to get to the crux of the matter. “Of all the challenges you face, what’s the biggest?” I asked. “What keeps you up at night?”
“Lack of respect,” John replied. “IT has spent so much time and money over the years before I took this role, just trying to connect everything together and keeping the lights on, that we don’t have any time or money left over to innovate,” he explained. “So now the lines of business feel they have to go around IT and buy apps on their own.”
“Which only makes the problem worse,” I added.
“Precisely.” John ran his fingers through what was left of his hair. “I need to get Horizon out of this Catch-22, where IT’s internal issues prevent us from supporting the business, so the business makes their own technology decisions, which only make our integration, portfolio management, and governance issues worse.”
Time to apply my new approach, the Bloomberg Agile Architecture Technique. The Bloomberg Agile Architecture™ (BAA) Technique offers a way of thinking about and doing architecture that is laser-focused on business agility as the fundamental business driver. Yet while the BAA Technique is an approach to Enterprise Architecture, it’s not a framework or a methodology. In fact, if you’re using TOGAF or SAFe or Zachman or any number of other architectural frameworks or methodologies, the BAA Technique doesn’t require you to throw them out. Rather, the BAA Technique simplifies your choices, as it lays out a particular path through all the options facing the architect that leads to greater business agility. Here’s how it works.
Applying the Bloomberg Agile Architecture Technique within Horizon
The starting point for Horizon’s BAA effort is to cast their problems as business agility drivers. Business agility breaks down into three core priorities: responsiveness and resilience, which are the tactical, reactive drivers, and the strategic, proactive driver of innovativeness. Responsiveness means being able to respond quickly and efficiently to positive change in the business environment, while resilience suggests being able to bounce back from adverse change. Innovativeness, in contrast, means being able to introduce change into the business environment intentionally, in order to achieve strategic benefits like increased market share or penetration of new markets.
At its core, however, BAA is a technology-driven technique, as it provides specific approaches for leveraging modern technologies like Cloud Computing and Big Data Analytics to achieve the business agility goals of the organization. The goal of the architecture exercise, therefore, is to connect the dots between the enterprise agility drivers and the necessary technology changes the IT organization must make in order to achieve those goals.
It’s important to remember, however, that BAA is itself an Agile technique – that is, instead of a heavyweight, big-bang approach, BAA favors an iterative, problem-focused approach that seeks to achieve real progress in a practical, step-by-step manner. As a result, even the most intractable of legacy rats’ nests can benefit from the BAA Technique.
Conversations with Horizon’s line-of-business executives uncovered their agility drivers. They wanted to expand into new markets, improve customer satisfaction in order to increase their repeat customer rate, and add new resort offerings to better compete in existing markets. We worked through these drivers, identifying the core challenges that centered on dealing with change. Numerous challenges presented themselves, and we worked them into their BAA Roadmap (more about such roadmaps in a future Cortex newsletter).
After a few weeks helping them understand their as-is architecture as well as their BAA Roadmap, we settled on a pilot project to serve as the first iteration of their overall BAA deployment. Such pilots serve several purposes: they solve a real, albeit limited problem; they prove the technique works; they get the team up to speed; and they establish an iterative pattern by serving as the first iteration. In the case of Horizon, the pilot focused on their loyalty system.
The loyalty system is supposed to track repeat customers, in order to recognize them as Horizon’s best clientele by offering special promotions, personalized service, and other premiums. Horizon’s problem wasn’t that they didn’t have such a system; their problem was that they had too many loyalty systems. The company had grown internationally through various acquisitions over the years, which led to the addition of various loyalty technologies. On top of these corporate acquisitions, various line-of-business managers within regions had taken it upon themselves to purchase their own loyalty apps. The result was a complicated mess that often didn’t recognize a loyal customer from one geography to the next, as well as causing a variety of related problems, like inconsistent and redundant emails to customers and front desk staff who didn’t know whether someone walking up was a regular or not.
A traditional architectural solution would focus on hammering out the to-be architecture, which in this case might center on a single loyalty system that replaced the motley assortment they started with (which would be unlikely, as every line-of-business manager favors the one they’re using), or more likely an approach to integrating existing systems so that they would present to the customer as a single, coherent application. Such an effort would likely bog down when the data architects tried to rationalize the various and sundry data models that each individual loyalty app depended on. Many months and perhaps millions of dollars later, Horizon might have ended up with a working loyalty system.
That is, until the business environment changed. Perhaps due to a new acquisition. Or maybe an addition of a line of business (there was some buzz about acquiring a cruise line). Or even regulatory change. Now that tightly integrated but fragile loyalty system would no longer meet the requirements, and it would be back to square one.
With BAA, in contrast, there is no to-be architecture – or at least, not in the physical sense of architecting a working app as above. Instead, the focus of the architecture is expecting and supporting ongoing change by specifying technology that is inherently flexible. In other words, architects must begin at the Meta layer, the top layer of the BAA Abstraction Layers diagram below.
Bloomberg Agile Architecture Abstraction Layers
I discussed the Meta layer in my book, The Agile Architecture Revolution, as well as in other articles over the last few years. At the Meta layer, architects (and others) treat business agility as a metarequirement (a requirement that affects other requirements). The also hammer out metaprocesses (processes for creating and modifying processes) and metapolicies (policies for how to do governance). In the case of Horizon’s loyalty system, work at the Meta level focused on how they will deal with changes that might impact the loyalty system, and what processes and policies at Horizon should be put in place to deal with such change.
While architects must generally start at the Meta level, in practice each iteration should be tackled both top-down and bottom-up at the same time. The architects must have a good understanding of existing technology (working at the Physical layer) as well as the core abstractions that are in place for dealing with that technology (for example, data schemas, Web Service or other API specifications, etc.), which take place at the Abstracted layer. As the team works through the iteration, they will eventually derive recommendations for how to make changes at the Physical and Abstracted layers, but in order to make such recommendations, the architects’ focus must shift to the Dynamic layer.
The Dynamic layer is the key to the entire BAA technique – the glue that ties organizational and process efforts at achieving agility at the Meta layer to the changes Horizon must make to their application and infrastructure environment to support the agility drivers that apply to this iteration. As I explained in the last Cortex newsletter, the focus of the Dynamic layer is on creating abstract models that the underlying infrastructure can resolve at run time into the specific logical representations in the Abstracted layer. Get this step right and you’re on your way to implementing technology that is inherently flexible.
The Intellyx Take
The work so far at Horizon has really just begun, of course. Understanding that abstract models must drive the underlying technology decisions is an important first step, but we must still answer the how question – how to get technology implementations that follow the BAA technique to actually work. I’ll be filling in such important details in my Cortex newsletter as well as my DevX Agile Architecture Revolution blog over time. (If you can’t wait, then join me in one of my upcoming Bloomberg Agile Architecture Certification courses or drop me a line.)
In the meantime, take another look at the BAA Abstraction Layers diagram above – especially if you’re an architect with years of experience dealing with other, similar layer cake diagrams. True, the bottom two layers are tried and true – nothing particularly new there. To really understand why BAA is different, you must understand the top two layers: in and of themselves, and how they relate to everything else. Simply adding one layer of abstraction on top of another is also a familiar architectural rat hole, but one I’ve been careful to avoid. If you understand why that is, you’re on your way to understanding Bloomberg Agile Architecture – just as John at Horizon is well on his way to getting some respect.
Horizon is a fictitious company. Any similarity to a real company is purely coincidental. Image credit: Kevin Dooley
The following fictional case study is a composite of actual horror stories I’ve heard over the years. Unfortunately, this scenario often occurs when in-house integration teams take on the complexities of DevOps and ALM integration with an enterprise service bus (ESB) or custom integration. It is written from the perspective of an enterprise architect tasked with leading an organization’s effort to adopt Agile to become more competitive. The company has turned to Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe) as ...
Aug. 25, 2016 05:00 PM EDT Reads: 575
Monitoring of Docker environments is challenging. Why? Because each container typically runs a single process, has its own environment, utilizes virtual networks, or has various methods of managing storage. Traditional monitoring solutions take metrics from each server and applications they run. These servers and applications running on them are typically very static, with very long uptimes. Docker deployments are different: a set of containers may run many applications, all sharing the resource...
Aug. 25, 2016 04:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,916
DevOps at Cloud Expo, taking place Nov 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 19th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The widespread success of cloud computing is driving the DevOps revolution in enterprise IT. Now as never before, development teams must communicate and collaborate in a dynamic, 24/7/365 environment. There is no time to wait for long dev...
Aug. 25, 2016 03:15 PM EDT Reads: 2,199
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 19th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal and enterprise IT since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago. All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices - comp...
Aug. 25, 2016 02:00 PM EDT Reads: 3,543
It's been a busy time for tech's ongoing infatuation with containers. Amazon just announced EC2 Container Registry to simply container management. The new Azure container service taps into Microsoft's partnership with Docker and Mesosphere. You know when there's a standard for containers on the table there's money on the table, too. Everyone is talking containers because they reduce a ton of development-related challenges and make it much easier to move across production and testing environm...
Aug. 25, 2016 01:30 PM EDT Reads: 4,943
Cloud Expo 2016 New York at the Javits Center New York was characterized by increased attendance and a new focus on operations. These were both encouraging signs for all involved in Cloud Computing and all that it touches. As Conference Chair, I work with the Cloud Expo team to structure three keynotes, numerous general sessions, and more than 150 breakout sessions along 10 tracks. Our job is to balance the state of enterprise IT today with the trends that will be commonplace tomorrow. Mobile...
Aug. 25, 2016 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 3,256
The 19th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. Cloud Expo, to be held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, brings together Cloud Computing, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, Digital Transformation, Microservices and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportuni...
Aug. 25, 2016 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 3,885
SYS-CON Events announced today that Venafi, the Immune System for the Internet™ and the leading provider of Next Generation Trust Protection, will exhibit at @DevOpsSummit at 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Venafi is the Immune System for the Internet™ that protects the foundation of all cybersecurity – cryptographic keys and digital certificates – so they can’t be misused by bad guys in attacks...
Aug. 25, 2016 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,592
[session] Architecting for the Cloud By @RagsS | @CloudExpo @IBMBluemix #Cloud #Docker #Microservices
As the world moves toward more DevOps and Microservices, application deployment to the cloud ought to become a lot simpler. The Microservices architecture, which is the basis of many new age distributed systems such as OpenStack, NetFlix and so on, is at the heart of Cloud Foundry - a complete developer-oriented Platform as a Service (PaaS) that is IaaS agnostic and supports vCloud, OpenStack and AWS. Serverless computing is revolutionizing computing. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Raghav...
Aug. 25, 2016 12:45 PM EDT Reads: 576
DevOps at Cloud Expo – being held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA – announces that its Call for Papers is open. Born out of proven success in agile development, cloud computing, and process automation, DevOps is a macro trend you cannot afford to miss. From showcase success stories from early adopters and web-scale businesses, DevOps is expanding to organizations of all sizes, including the world's largest enterprises – and delivering real results. Am...
Aug. 25, 2016 12:15 PM EDT Reads: 3,383
Modern organizations face great challenges as they embrace innovation and integrate new tools and services. They begin to mature and move away from the complacency of maintaining traditional technologies and systems that only solve individual, siloed problems and work “well enough.” In order to build...
SYS-CON Events announced today that eCube Systems, a leading provider of middleware modernization, integration, and management solutions, will exhibit at @DevOpsSummit at 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. eCube Systems offers a family of middleware evolution products and services that maximize return on technology investment by leveraging existing technical equity to meet evolving business needs. ...
Aug. 25, 2016 09:00 AM EDT Reads: 497
To leverage Continuous Delivery, enterprises must consider impacts that span functional silos, as well as applications that touch older, slower moving components. Managing the many dependencies can cause slowdowns. See how to achieve continuous delivery in the enterprise.
Aug. 25, 2016 08:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,532
Using new techniques of information modeling, indexing, and processing, new cloud-based systems can support cloud-based workloads previously not possible for high-throughput insurance, banking, and case-based applications. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, John Newton, CTO, Founder and Chairman of Alfresco, described how to scale cloud-based content management repositories to store, manage, and retrieve billions of documents and related information with fast and linear scalability. He addres...
Aug. 25, 2016 07:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,902
Akana has announced the availability of version 8 of its API Management solution. The Akana Platform provides an end-to-end API Management solution for designing, implementing, securing, managing, monitoring, and publishing APIs. It is available as a SaaS platform, on-premises, and as a hybrid deployment. Version 8 introduces a lot of new functionality, all aimed at offering customers the richest API Management capabilities in a way that is easier than ever for API and app developers to use.
Aug. 25, 2016 06:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,436
SYS-CON Events announced today that Isomorphic Software will exhibit at DevOps Summit at 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Isomorphic Software provides the SmartClient HTML5/AJAX platform, the most advanced technology for building rich, cutting-edge enterprise web applications for desktop and mobile. SmartClient combines the productivity and performance of traditional desktop software with the simp...
Aug. 25, 2016 03:30 AM EDT Reads: 2,154
SYS-CON Events announced today that 910Telecom will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Housed in the classic Denver Gas & Electric Building, 910 15th St., 910Telecom is a carrier-neutral telecom hotel located in the heart of Denver. Adjacent to CenturyLink, AT&T, and Denver Main, 910Telecom offers connectivity to all major carriers, Internet service providers, Internet backbones and ...
Aug. 25, 2016 02:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,808
The burgeoning trends around DevOps are translating into new types of IT infrastructure that both developers and operators can take advantage of. The next BriefingsDirect Voice of the Customer thought leadership discussion focuses on the burgeoning trends around DevOps and how that’s translating into new types of IT infrastructure that both developers and operators can take advantage of.
Aug. 25, 2016 02:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,434
With so much going on in this space you could be forgiven for thinking you were always working with yesterday’s technologies. So much change, so quickly. What do you do if you have to build a solution from the ground up that is expected to live in the field for at least 5-10 years? This is the challenge we faced when we looked to refresh our existing 10-year-old custom hardware stack to measure the fullness of trash cans and compactors.
Aug. 25, 2016 01:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,640
This digest provides an overview of good resources that are well worth reading. We’ll be updating this page as new content becomes available, so I suggest you bookmark it. Also, expect more digests to come on different topics that make all of our IT-hearts go boom!
Aug. 25, 2016 12:45 AM EDT Reads: 4,689