Click here to close now.



Welcome!

Microservices Expo Authors: Elizabeth White, Liz McMillan, Carmen Gonzalez, Pat Romanski, Yeshim Deniz

Related Topics: Microservices Expo, Java IoT, Linux Containers, @CloudExpo

Microservices Expo: Article

Bloomberg Agile Architecture in Action

How to think about and do architecture laser-focused on business agility as the fundamental business driver

“We have a mess on our hands,” said John, the CIO of an international hospitality and resort enterprise I’ll call Horizon (I’ve fictionalized the story but it’s based on a combination of true stories). “Every line of business wants something different from IT. There’s lodging, resort operations, restaurant operations, facilities management – even housekeeping, and they all want their own apps.”

It’s a familiar story, of course. I needed to get to the crux of the matter. “Of all the challenges you face, what’s the biggest?” I asked. “What keeps you up at night?”

“Lack of respect,” John replied. “IT has spent so much time and money over the years before I took this role, just trying to connect everything together and keeping the lights on, that we don’t have any time or money left over to innovate,” he explained. “So now the lines of business feel they have to go around IT and buy apps on their own.”

“Which only makes the problem worse,” I added.

“Precisely.” John ran his fingers through what was left of his hair. “I need to get Horizon out of this Catch-22, where IT’s internal issues prevent us from supporting the business, so the business makes their own technology decisions, which only make our integration, portfolio management, and governance issues worse.”

Time to apply my new approach, the Bloomberg Agile Architecture Technique. The Bloomberg Agile Architecture™ (BAA) Technique offers a way of thinking about and doing architecture that is laser-focused on business agility as the fundamental business driver. Yet while the BAA Technique is an approach to Enterprise Architecture, it’s not a framework or a methodology. In fact, if you’re using TOGAF or SAFe or Zachman or any number of other architectural frameworks or methodologies, the BAA Technique doesn’t require you to throw them out. Rather, the BAA Technique simplifies your choices, as it lays out a particular path through all the options facing the architect that leads to greater business agility. Here’s how it works.

Applying the Bloomberg Agile Architecture Technique within Horizon
The starting point for Horizon’s BAA effort is to cast their problems as business agility drivers. Business agility breaks down into three core priorities: responsiveness and resilience, which are the tactical, reactive drivers, and the strategic, proactive driver of innovativeness. Responsiveness means being able to respond quickly and efficiently to positive change in the business environment, while resilience suggests being able to bounce back from adverse change. Innovativeness, in contrast, means being able to introduce change into the business environment intentionally, in order to achieve strategic benefits like increased market share or penetration of new markets.

At its core, however, BAA is a technology-driven technique, as it provides specific approaches for leveraging modern technologies like Cloud Computing and Big Data Analytics to achieve the business agility goals of the organization. The goal of the architecture exercise, therefore, is to connect the dots between the enterprise agility drivers and the necessary technology changes the IT organization must make in order to achieve those goals.

It’s important to remember, however, that BAA is itself an Agile technique – that is, instead of a heavyweight, big-bang approach, BAA favors an iterative, problem-focused approach that seeks to achieve real progress in a practical, step-by-step manner. As a result, even the most intractable of legacy rats’ nests can benefit from the BAA Technique.

Conversations with Horizon’s line-of-business executives uncovered their agility drivers. They wanted to expand into new markets, improve customer satisfaction in order to increase their repeat customer rate, and add new resort offerings to better compete in existing markets. We worked through these drivers, identifying the core challenges that centered on dealing with change. Numerous challenges presented themselves, and we worked them into their BAA Roadmap (more about such roadmaps in a future Cortex newsletter).

After a few weeks helping them understand their as-is architecture as well as their BAA Roadmap, we settled on a pilot project to serve as the first iteration of their overall BAA deployment. Such pilots serve several purposes: they solve a real, albeit limited problem; they prove the technique works; they get the team up to speed; and they establish an iterative pattern by serving as the first iteration. In the case of Horizon, the pilot focused on their loyalty system.

The loyalty system is supposed to track repeat customers, in order to recognize them as Horizon’s best clientele by offering special promotions, personalized service, and other premiums. Horizon’s problem wasn’t that they didn’t have such a system; their problem was that they had too many loyalty systems. The company had grown internationally through various acquisitions over the years, which led to the addition of various loyalty technologies. On top of these corporate acquisitions, various line-of-business managers within regions had taken it upon themselves to purchase their own loyalty apps. The result was a complicated mess that often didn’t recognize a loyal customer from one geography to the next, as well as causing a variety of related problems, like inconsistent and redundant emails to customers and front desk staff who didn’t know whether someone walking up was a regular or not.

A traditional architectural solution would focus on hammering out the to-be architecture, which in this case might center on a single loyalty system that replaced the motley assortment they started with (which would be unlikely, as every line-of-business manager favors the one they’re using), or more likely an approach to integrating existing systems so that they would present to the customer as a single, coherent application. Such an effort would likely bog down when the data architects tried to rationalize the various and sundry data models that each individual loyalty app depended on. Many months and perhaps millions of dollars later, Horizon might have ended up with a working loyalty system.

That is, until the business environment changed. Perhaps due to a new acquisition. Or maybe an addition of a line of business (there was some buzz about acquiring a cruise line). Or even regulatory change. Now that tightly integrated but fragile loyalty system would no longer meet the requirements, and it would be back to square one.

With BAA, in contrast, there is no to-be architecture – or at least, not in the physical sense of architecting a working app as above. Instead, the focus of the architecture is expecting and supporting ongoing change by specifying technology that is inherently flexible. In other words, architects must begin at the Meta layer, the top layer of the BAA Abstraction Layers diagram below.

Bloomberg Agile Architecture Abstraction Layers

I discussed the Meta layer in my book, The Agile Architecture Revolution, as well as in other articles over the last few years. At the Meta layer, architects (and others) treat business agility as a metarequirement (a requirement that affects other requirements). The also hammer out metaprocesses (processes for creating and modifying processes) and metapolicies (policies for how to do governance). In the case of Horizon’s loyalty system, work at the Meta level focused on how they will deal with changes that might impact the loyalty system, and what processes and policies at Horizon should be put in place to deal with such change.

While architects must generally start at the Meta level, in practice each iteration should be tackled both top-down and bottom-up at the same time. The architects must have a good understanding of existing technology (working at the Physical layer) as well as the core abstractions that are in place for dealing with that technology (for example, data schemas, Web Service or other API specifications, etc.), which take place at the Abstracted layer. As the team works through the iteration, they will eventually derive recommendations for how to make changes at the Physical and Abstracted layers, but in order to make such recommendations, the architects’ focus must shift to the Dynamic layer.

The Dynamic layer is the key to the entire BAA technique – the glue that ties organizational and process efforts at achieving agility at the Meta layer to the changes Horizon must make to their application and infrastructure environment to support the agility drivers that apply to this iteration. As I explained in the last Cortex newsletter, the focus of the Dynamic layer is on creating abstract models that the underlying infrastructure can resolve at run time into the specific logical representations in the Abstracted layer. Get this step right and you’re on your way to implementing technology that is inherently flexible.

The Intellyx Take
The work so far at Horizon has really just begun, of course. Understanding that abstract models must drive the underlying technology decisions is an important first step, but we must still answer the how question – how to get technology implementations that follow the BAA technique to actually work. I’ll be filling in such important details in my Cortex newsletter as well as my DevX Agile Architecture Revolution blog over time. (If you can’t wait, then join me in one of my upcoming Bloomberg Agile Architecture Certification courses or drop me a line.)

In the meantime, take another look at the BAA Abstraction Layers diagram above – especially if you’re an architect with years of experience dealing with other, similar layer cake diagrams. True, the bottom two layers are tried and true – nothing particularly new there. To really understand why BAA is different, you must understand the top two layers: in and of themselves, and how they relate to everything else. Simply adding one layer of abstraction on top of another is also a familiar architectural rat hole, but one I’ve been careful to avoid. If you understand why that is, you’re on your way to understanding Bloomberg Agile Architecture – just as John at Horizon is well on his way to getting some respect.

Horizon is a fictitious company. Any similarity to a real company is purely coincidental. Image credit: Kevin Dooley

More Stories By Jason Bloomberg

Jason Bloomberg is the leading expert on architecting agility for the enterprise. As president of Intellyx, Mr. Bloomberg brings his years of thought leadership in the areas of Cloud Computing, Enterprise Architecture, and Service-Oriented Architecture to a global clientele of business executives, architects, software vendors, and Cloud service providers looking to achieve technology-enabled business agility across their organizations and for their customers. His latest book, The Agile Architecture Revolution (John Wiley & Sons, 2013), sets the stage for Mr. Bloomberg’s groundbreaking Agile Architecture vision.

Mr. Bloomberg is perhaps best known for his twelve years at ZapThink, where he created and delivered the Licensed ZapThink Architect (LZA) SOA course and associated credential, certifying over 1,700 professionals worldwide. He is one of the original Managing Partners of ZapThink LLC, the leading SOA advisory and analysis firm, which was acquired by Dovel Technologies in 2011. He now runs the successor to the LZA program, the Bloomberg Agile Architecture Course, around the world.

Mr. Bloomberg is a frequent conference speaker and prolific writer. He has published over 500 articles, spoken at over 300 conferences, Webinars, and other events, and has been quoted in the press over 1,400 times as the leading expert on agile approaches to architecture in the enterprise.

Mr. Bloomberg’s previous book, Service Orient or Be Doomed! How Service Orientation Will Change Your Business (John Wiley & Sons, 2006, coauthored with Ron Schmelzer), is recognized as the leading business book on Service Orientation. He also co-authored the books XML and Web Services Unleashed (SAMS Publishing, 2002), and Web Page Scripting Techniques (Hayden Books, 1996).

Prior to ZapThink, Mr. Bloomberg built a diverse background in eBusiness technology management and industry analysis, including serving as a senior analyst in IDC’s eBusiness Advisory group, as well as holding eBusiness management positions at USWeb/CKS (later marchFIRST) and WaveBend Solutions (now Hitachi Consulting).

@MicroservicesExpo Stories
In the world of DevOps there are ‘known good practices’ – aka ‘patterns’ – and ‘known bad practices’ – aka ‘anti-patterns.' Many of these patterns and anti-patterns have been developed from real world experience, especially by the early adopters of DevOps theory; but many are more feasible in theory than in practice, especially for more recent entrants to the DevOps scene. In this power panel at @DevOpsSummit at 18th Cloud Expo, moderated by DevOps Conference Chair Andi Mann, panelists discusse...
When people aren’t talking about VMs and containers, they’re talking about serverless architecture. Serverless is about no maintenance. It means you are not worried about low-level infrastructural and operational details. An event-driven serverless platform is a great use case for IoT. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Animesh Singh, an STSM and Lead for IBM Cloud Platform and Infrastructure, will detail how to build a distributed serverless, polyglot, microservices framework using open source tec...
Cloud Expo, Inc. has announced today that Andi Mann returns to 'DevOps at Cloud Expo 2016' as Conference Chair The @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo will take place on November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. "DevOps is set to be one of the most profound disruptions to hit IT in decades," said Andi Mann. "It is a natural extension of cloud computing, and I have seen both firsthand and in independent research the fantastic results DevOps delivers. So I am excited t...
More and more companies are looking to microservices as an architectural pattern for breaking apart applications into more manageable pieces so that agile teams can deliver new features quicker and more effectively. What this pattern has done more than anything to date is spark organizational transformations, setting the foundation for future application development. In practice, however, there are a number of considerations to make that go beyond simply “build, ship, and run,” which changes ho...
Gartner is now treating algorithms like they are some kind of innovative addition to the modern digital discussion. Presumably the brilliant minds there have some novel insight into algorithms and, yes, the Algorithm Economy that CIOs should sit up and take notice of. Not only are algorithms nothing new, but much of what Gartner is saying about them is obvious. The bigger picture here is that software continues to improve, and enterprises are becoming increasingly software-driven, in part bec...
The Internet of Things is clearly many things: data collection and analytics, wearables, Smart Grids and Smart Cities, the Industrial Internet, and more. Cool platforms like Arduino, Raspberry Pi, Intel's Galileo and Edison, and a diverse world of sensors are making the IoT a great toy box for developers in all these areas. In this Power Panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists discussed what things are the most important, which will have the most profound...
The Internet of Things (IoT) is growing rapidly by extending current technologies, products and networks. By 2020, Cisco estimates there will be 50 billion connected devices. Gartner has forecast revenues of over $300 billion, just to IoT suppliers. Now is the time to figure out how you’ll make money – not just create innovative products. With hundreds of new products and companies jumping into the IoT fray every month, there’s no shortage of innovation. Despite this, McKinsey/VisionMobile data...
NHK, Japan Broadcasting, will feature the upcoming @ThingsExpo Silicon Valley in a special 'Internet of Things' and smart technology documentary that will be filmed on the expo floor between November 3 to 5, 2015, in Santa Clara. NHK is the sole public TV network in Japan equivalent to the BBC in the UK and the largest in Asia with many award-winning science and technology programs. Japanese TV is producing a documentary about IoT and Smart technology and will be covering @ThingsExpo Silicon Val...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Men & Mice, the leading global provider of DNS, DHCP and IP address management overlay solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. The Men & Mice Suite overlay solution is already known for its powerful application in heterogeneous operating environments, enabling enterprises to scale without fuss. Building on a solid range of diverse platform support,...
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place June 7-9, 2016 at Javits Center, New York City and Nov 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with the 18th International @CloudExpo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world and ThingsExpo New York Call for Papers is now open.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Catchpoint Systems, Inc., a provider of innovative web and infrastructure monitoring solutions, has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's DevOps Summit at 18th Cloud Expo New York, which will take place June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Catchpoint is a leading Digital Performance Analytics company that provides unparalleled insight into customer-critical services to help consistently deliver an amazing customer experience. Designed...
@DevOpsSummit taking place June 7-9, 2016 at Javits Center, New York City, and Nov 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with the 18th International @CloudExpo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world.
Cloud Expo, Inc. has announced today that Andi Mann returns to 'DevOps at Cloud Expo 2016' as Conference Chair The @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York. "DevOps is set to be one of the most profound disruptions to hit IT in decades," said Andi Mann. "It is a natural extension of cloud computing, and I have seen both firsthand and in independent research the fantastic results DevOps delivers. So I am excited to help the g...
Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) will feature the upcoming 18th Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo in a New York news documentary about the "New IT for the Future." The documentary will cover how big companies are transmitting or adopting the new IT for the future and will be filmed on the expo floor between June 7-June 9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York. KBS has long been a leader in the development of the broadcasting culture of Korea. As the key public service broadcaster of Korea...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Addteq will exhibit at SYS-CON's @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo New York, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Addteq is one of the top 10 Platinum Atlassian Experts who specialize in DevOps, custom and continuous integration, automation, plugin development, and consulting for midsize and global firms. Addteq firmly believes that automation is essential for successful software releases. Addteq centers its products a...
In the rush to compete in the digital age, a successful digital transformation is essential, but many organizations are setting themselves up for failure. There’s a common misconception that the process is just about technology, but it’s not. It’s about your business. It shouldn’t be treated as an isolated IT project; it should be driven by business needs with the committed involvement of a range of stakeholders.
SYS-CON Events announced today that FalconStor Software® Inc., a 15-year innovator of software-defined storage solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. FalconStor Software®, Inc. (NASDAQ: FALC) is a leading software-defined storage company offering a converged, hardware-agnostic, software-defined storage and data services platform. Its flagship solution FreeStor®, utilizes a horizonta...
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo 2016 in New York and Silicon Valley. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 17th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Column Technologies will exhibit at SYS-CON's @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Established in 1998, Column Technologies is a global technology solutions provider with over 400 employees, headquartered in the United States with offices in Canada, India, and the United Kingdom. Column Technologies provides “Best of Breed” technology solutions that automate the key DevOps principal...
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftLayer, an IBM Company, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. SoftLayer, an IBM Company, provides cloud infrastructure as a service from a growing number of data centers and network points of presence around the world. SoftLayer’s customers range from Web startups to global enterprises.