Click here to close now.

Welcome!

MICROSERVICES Authors: XebiaLabs Blog, Carmen Gonzalez, Elizabeth White, Andy Jonak, Michael Kanasoot

Blog Feed Post

Setting the Bar for Agile Architecture

My five months with EnterpriseWeb have run their course, and I’m returning to the world of advisory, analysis, and architecture training with my new company, Intellyx, and this, the inaugural issue of our Cortex newsletter. After a dozen years with ZapThink, doing my best to help organizations around the globe get architecture right, you might wonder why I took a detour as Chief Evangelist for a vendor. The answer: EnterpriseWeb has brought technology to market that can upend the entire Agile Architecture discussion. They have set the bar for what it means to build a platform that can enable organizations to achieve the elusive business agility benefits that SOA promised but never delivered. And if a five-person company out of upstate New York can do that, then anybody can.

As of today I return full time to being a chief evangelist for the style of Enterprise Architecture I refer to as Agile Architecture in my book, The Agile Architecture Revolution. In that book I talk about REST-Based SOA, Cloud Computing, mobile technologies, and a host of other modern enterprise technology trends that are shaking up IT departments as they try to get a handle on the business value such technologies promise. And yet, I’ll be the first to admit that the book didn’t go far enough. You could take every word I wrote to heart and still not know how to architect agility in your organization. There were pieces missing from the story – and all these missing elements centered on the fundamental challenge of distributed computing.

The central challenge of distributed computing, of course, is how to get your various distributed bits to communicate with each other properly. Since those distributed components are typically heterogeneous, we must somehow come up with a common means of establishing interaction among components everybody can agree on. Yet, once we do that, we’ve necessarily compromised on flexibility, because changing how our components interact is a difficult, complex endeavor. Agile Architecture must solve this problem.

This problem pervades the entire history of APIs, from remote procedure calls to Web Services to RESTful APIs and everything in between. We must somehow contract interfaces in order to abstract the underlying functionality, thus providing loose coupling and with it, some measure of flexibility within the underlying code. Yet the very act of introducing such contracts (including REST’s uniform interface) is a compromise, since the interface itself now lacks flexibility. Basically, we look at the world of distributed computing and convince ourselves that the only way to get this stuff to work at all is to give up agility. The end result? Instead of being an enabler of business agility, enterprise IT is now cast in the role of limiter of business agility.

The central technical challenge for Agile Architecture, therefore, is how to achieve functionality and performance without having to trade off flexibility. This central compromise of distributed computing is the nut that EnterpriseWeb has been able to crack by adding an additional layer of abstraction over the entire distributed environment, coupled with an agent-oriented runtime engine that resolves abstracted references dynamically in real time. The bottom line: at least one vendor in the marketplace has shown that it is possible to deliver on the promise of Agile Architecture. And if one can, so can others.

brain_trucker_hatThe Four Central Patterns of Agile Architecture

Now it’s time for me to take off my EnterpriseWeb hat and put it in a drawer. In its place goes the Intellyx hat, blue brain and all. After all, the point of this article isn’t to talk about what a single vendor has accomplished. Rather, my goal is to lay out the essential patterns of Agile Architecture that heretofore have been difficult or impossible to implement in practice.

The context for these central patterns of Agile Architecture is the concept of architecting at the “meta” level I discuss in my book – the higher level of abstraction that EnterpriseWeb has been able to implement. At this meta level, there are four central patterns of Agile Architecture that are essential to resolving the fundamental compromise of distributed computing:

  • Dynamic Coupling. Tightly coupled interfaces require detailed knowledge of both sides of a distributed computing interaction, and any change on one side might break the other. Contracted interfaces introduce loose coupling, implementing an abstraction that separates interface from implementation, thus allowing changes to the implementation, but at the expense of a static interface. With dynamic coupling, interface differences are resolved dynamically at run time. The underlying integration engine must be able to find all relevant metadata and resolve any interaction issues in real time in order to allow the metadata to change from one request to the next.
  • Dynamic Schemas. Neither the WSDL files that specify Web Services, nor the URIs, HTTP verbs, and Internet Media Types that specify RESTful APIs adequately contract the message semantics for any interaction. As a result, metadata describing such semantics are scattered about in XML schemas or Custom Media Types or other arbitrary places, leading to the reintroduction of tight coupling and inflexibility. Dynamic schemas abstract all such semantic metadata in a consistent way, relying once again upon the integration engine to resolve these dynamic schemas for each interaction at run time.
  • Extreme Late Binding. Remember the original promise of SOA registries and the ungainly UDDI standard? The idea was that a Service consumer could automatically look up a Web Service at run time, and based upon the WSDL file it found as a result, bind to the newly discovered service in real time, potentially choosing a different Web Service for each interaction. Unfortunately, Web Services rarely if ever worked this way. Registries ended up doing little more than resolving endpoint references at run time, similar to the way DNS resolves domain names – in other words, they provided late binding. Such late binding adds some flexibility to an interaction, but typically at the expense of performance. Today, however, dynamic coupling and dynamic schemas enable any client to discover at run time all the metadata it requires to interact with any endpoint, without sacrificing performance – what I call extreme late binding.
  • Dynamic Constraint Satisfaction. The publication of Services at design time for later discovery shifted SOA’s focus from integration to governance. How are you going to manage all the Services in your directory – let alone actually reuse any of them – unless you are able to create and enforce policies across your organization for how to do so properly? Yes, SOA management tools (helpfully renamed API management tools for the 2010s) provide some measure of API governance, but typically constrained to the technical context of software interactions. However, ask a business stakeholder what governance means to them, and you’ll get an entirely different context for the word. While some policies are technical in nature and apply narrowly to specific APIs or applications, others are more business-centric and apply broadly across departments or even entire organizations. To enforce the full breadth of such policies properly, your run time environment must essentially solve for the combination of all applicable policies dynamically at run time across the entire application environment – a classic dynamic constraint satisfaction problem.

If you believe any of these patterns is nothing more than an old pattern warmed over with a new name, you may be missing something important. True, each of these patterns builds upon patterns that came before, but they all advance the discussion of Agile Architecture to a new level. On the other hand, if you think any of the above patterns are too difficult to implement – if it sounds like you need some kind of magic wand to make this vision work – then I’m here to tell you, I’ve seen a platform that can implement all four patterns, and furthermore, can do so without sacrificing performance. Thus we know they are possible. The question now is, why isn’t everyone doing them?

You may, however, believe that you’re actually implementing some or all of these patterns, either as an architect or as a vendor whose product supports such patterns for your customers. If so, I want to hear from you. Intellyx wants to tell your story.

The Intellyx Take

The Agile Architecture bar is set. Vendors should know what their products must do. Architects have some insight into the patterns they must follow. And business stakeholders can finally rest assured that at least it’s possible to achieve technology-enabled business agility. True, it’s difficult. Many of the pieces are only just now falling into place. Levels of maturity are low across the board. But we’re on our way.

I’m looking forward to helping organizations like yours by leading the Agile Architecture story. I hope to see you in one of my all-new Bloomberg Agile Architecture courses, the sequel to my popular Licensed ZapThink Architect course, coming to Seattle, Dubai, Sydney, Washington DC, and London in the next few months. Or perhaps I can present a keynote at your corporate event or conference, or if you’re a vendor or service provider, consider an Intellyx unlimited advisory subscription or participating in our upcoming Agile Architecture Vendor Landscape Report. You can also join our LinkedIn group or subscribe to the Cortex newsletter. And don’t forget to see me speak on Breaking Down Enterprise Silos in the Cloud next week at Cloud Expo in New York City, where I’ll be giving away a copy of my book. I’m looking forward to working with you again!

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Jason Bloomberg

Jason Bloomberg is the leading expert on architecting agility for the enterprise. As president of Intellyx, Mr. Bloomberg brings his years of thought leadership in the areas of Cloud Computing, Enterprise Architecture, and Service-Oriented Architecture to a global clientele of business executives, architects, software vendors, and Cloud service providers looking to achieve technology-enabled business agility across their organizations and for their customers. His latest book, The Agile Architecture Revolution (John Wiley & Sons, 2013), sets the stage for Mr. Bloomberg’s groundbreaking Agile Architecture vision.

Mr. Bloomberg is perhaps best known for his twelve years at ZapThink, where he created and delivered the Licensed ZapThink Architect (LZA) SOA course and associated credential, certifying over 1,700 professionals worldwide. He is one of the original Managing Partners of ZapThink LLC, the leading SOA advisory and analysis firm, which was acquired by Dovel Technologies in 2011. He now runs the successor to the LZA program, the Bloomberg Agile Architecture Course, around the world.

Mr. Bloomberg is a frequent conference speaker and prolific writer. He has published over 500 articles, spoken at over 300 conferences, Webinars, and other events, and has been quoted in the press over 1,400 times as the leading expert on agile approaches to architecture in the enterprise.

Mr. Bloomberg’s previous book, Service Orient or Be Doomed! How Service Orientation Will Change Your Business (John Wiley & Sons, 2006, coauthored with Ron Schmelzer), is recognized as the leading business book on Service Orientation. He also co-authored the books XML and Web Services Unleashed (SAMS Publishing, 2002), and Web Page Scripting Techniques (Hayden Books, 1996).

Prior to ZapThink, Mr. Bloomberg built a diverse background in eBusiness technology management and industry analysis, including serving as a senior analyst in IDC’s eBusiness Advisory group, as well as holding eBusiness management positions at USWeb/CKS (later marchFIRST) and WaveBend Solutions (now Hitachi Consulting).

@MicroservicesExpo Stories
This month I want to revisit supporting infrastructure and datacenter environments. I have touched (some would say rant) upon this topic since my post in April 2014 called "Take a Holistic View of Support". My thoughts and views on this topic have not changed at all: it's critical for any organization to have a holistic, comprehensive strategy and view of how they support their IT infrastructure and datacenter environments. In fact, I believe it's even more critical today then it was a year ago ...
The world's leading Cloud event, Cloud Expo has launched Microservices Journal on the SYS-CON.com portal, featuring over 19,000 original articles, news stories, features, and blog entries. DevOps Journal is focused on this critical enterprise IT topic in the world of cloud computing. Microservices Journal offers top articles, news stories, and blog posts from the world's well-known experts and guarantees better exposure for its authors than any other publication. Follow new article posts on T...
Hosted PaaS providers have given independent developers and startups huge advantages in efficiency and reduced time-to-market over their more process-bound counterparts in enterprises. Software frameworks are now available that allow enterprise IT departments to provide these same advantages for developers in their own organization. In his workshop session at DevOps Summit, Troy Topnik, ActiveState’s Technical Product Manager, will show how on-prem or cloud-hosted Private PaaS can enable organ...
Cloud computing is changing the way we look at IT costs, according to industry experts on a recent Cloud Luminary Fireside Chat panel discussion. Enterprise IT, traditionally viewed as a cost center, now plays a central role in the delivery of software-driven goods and services. Therefore, companies need to understand their cloud utilization and resulting costs in order to ensure profitability on their business offerings. Led by Bernard Golden, this fireside chat offers valuable insights on ho...
Microservice architectures are the new hotness, even though they aren't really all that different (in principle) from the paradigm described by SOA (which is dead, or not dead, depending on whom you ask). One of the things this decompositional approach to application architecture does is encourage developers and operations (some might even say DevOps) to re-evaluate scaling strategies. In particular, the notion is forwarded that an application should be built to scale and then infrastructure sho...
SYS-CON Events announced today the IoT Bootcamp – Jumpstart Your IoT Strategy, being held June 9–10, 2015, in conjunction with 16th Cloud Expo and Internet of @ThingsExpo at the Javits Center in New York City. This is your chance to jumpstart your IoT strategy. Combined with real-world scenarios and use cases, the IoT Bootcamp is not just based on presentations but includes hands-on demos and walkthroughs. We will introduce you to a variety of Do-It-Yourself IoT platforms including Arduino, Ras...
It's 2:15pm on a Friday, and I'm sitting in the keynote hall at PyCon 2013 fidgeting through a succession of lightning talks that have very little relevance to my life. Topics like "Python code coverage techniques" (ho-hum) and "Controlling Christmas lights with Python” (yawn - I wonder if there's anything new on Hacker News)...when Solomon Hykes takes the stage, unveils Docker, and the world shifts. If you haven't seen it yet, you should watch the video of Solomon's Pycon The Future of Linux C...
Even though it’s now Microservices Journal, long-time fans of SOA World Magazine can take comfort in the fact that the URL – soa.sys-con.com – remains unchanged. And that’s no mistake, as microservices are really nothing more than a new and improved take on the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) best practices we struggled to hammer out over the last decade. Skeptics, however, might say that this change is nothing more than an exercise in buzzword-hopping. SOA is passé, and now that people are ...
Microservices are the result of decomposing applications. That may sound a lot like SOA, but SOA was based on an object-oriented (noun) premise; that is, services were built around an object - like a customer - with all the necessary operations (functions) that go along with it. SOA was also founded on a variety of standards (most of them coming out of OASIS) like SOAP, WSDL, XML and UDDI. Microservices have no standards (at least none deriving from a standards body or organization) and can be b...
Right off the bat, Newman advises that we should "think of microservices as a specific approach for SOA in the same way that XP or Scrum are specific approaches for Agile Software development". These analogies are very interesting because my expectation was that microservices is a pattern. So I might infer that microservices is a set of process techniques as opposed to an architectural approach. Yet in the book, Newman clearly includes some elements of concept model and architecture as well as p...
You hear the terms “subscription economy” and “subscription commerce” all the time. And with good reason. Subscription-based monetization is transforming business as we know it. But what about usage? Where’s the “consumption economy”? Turns out, it’s all around us. When most people think of usage-based billing, the example that probably comes to mind first is metered public utilities — water, gas and electric. Phone services, especially mobile, might come next. Then maybe taxis. And that’s ab...
SYS-CON Events announced today the DevOps Foundation Certification Course, being held June ?, 2015, in conjunction with DevOps Summit and 16th Cloud Expo at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. This sixteen (16) hour course provides an introduction to DevOps – the cultural and professional movement that stresses communication, collaboration, integration and automation in order to improve the flow of work between software developers and IT operations professionals. Improved workflows will res...
As a group of concepts, DevOps has converged on several prominent themes including continuous software delivery, automation, and configuration management (CM). These integral pieces often form the pillars of an organization’s DevOps efforts, even as other bigger pieces like overarching best practices and guidelines are still being tried and tested. Being that DevOps is a relatively new paradigm - movement - methodology - [insert your own label here], standards around it have yet to be codified a...
Microservices, for the uninitiated, are essentially the decomposition of applications into multiple services. This decomposition is often based on functional lines, with related functions being grouped together into a service. While this may sound a like SOA, it really isn't, especially given that SOA was an object-centered methodology that focused on creating services around "nouns" like customer and product. Microservices, while certainly capable of being noun-based, are just as likely to be v...
Containers and microservices have become topics of intense interest throughout the cloud developer and enterprise IT communities. Accordingly, attendees at the upcoming 16th Cloud Expo at the Javits Center in New York June 9-11 will find fresh new content in a new track called PaaS | Containers & Microservices Containers are not being considered for the first time by the cloud community, but a current era of re-consideration has pushed them to the top of the cloud agenda. With the launch ...
An explosive combination of technology trends will be where ‘microservices’ and the IoT Internet of Things intersect, a concept we can describe by comparing it with a previous theme, the ‘X Internet.' The idea of using small self-contained application components has been popular since XML Web services began and a distributed computing future of smart fridges and kettles was imagined long back in the early Internet years.
SOA Software has changed its name to Akana. With roots in Web Services and SOA Governance, Akana has established itself as a leader in API Management and is expanding into cloud integration as an alternative to the traditional heavyweight enterprise service bus (ESB). The company recently announced that it achieved more than 90% year-over-year growth. As Akana, the company now addresses the evolution and diversification of SOA, unifying security, management, and DevOps across SOA, APIs, microser...
The 16th Cloud Expo has added coverage containers and microservices to its program for New York, to be held June 9-11 at the Jacob Javits Convention Center. Cloud Expo has long been the single, independent show where delegates and technology vendors can meet to experience and discuss the entire world of the cloud. This year will be no different. Containers are an old concept that saw renewed life with the emergence of Docker in 2013. Then late in 2014, CoreOS shook up the cloud-computing w...
Our guest on the podcast this week is Jason Bloomberg, President at Intellyx. When we build services we want them to be lightweight, stateless and scalable while doing one thing really well. In today’s cloud world, we’re revisiting what to takes to make a good service in the first place.microservices Listen in to learn why following “the book” doesn’t necessarily mean that you’re solving key business problems.
SYS-CON Events announced today that MangoApps will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY., and the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. MangoApps provides private all-in-one social intranets allowing workers to securely collaborate from anywhere in the world and from any device. Social, mobile, and eas...