|By Jason Bloomberg||
|June 16, 2014 09:45 AM EDT||
My five months with EnterpriseWeb have run their course, and I’m returning to the world of advisory, analysis, and architecture training with my new company, Intellyx, and this, the inaugural issue of our Cortex newsletter. After a dozen years with ZapThink, doing my best to help organizations around the globe get architecture right, you might wonder why I took a detour as Chief Evangelist for a vendor. The answer: EnterpriseWeb has brought technology to market that can upend the entire Agile Architecture discussion. They have set the bar for what it means to build a platform that can enable organizations to achieve the elusive business agility benefits that SOA promised but never delivered. And if a five-person company out of upstate New York can do that, then anybody can.
As of today I return full time to being a chief evangelist for the style of Enterprise Architecture I refer to as Agile Architecture in my book, The Agile Architecture Revolution. In that book I talk about REST-Based SOA, Cloud Computing, mobile technologies, and a host of other modern enterprise technology trends that are shaking up IT departments as they try to get a handle on the business value such technologies promise. And yet, I’ll be the first to admit that the book didn’t go far enough. You could take every word I wrote to heart and still not know how to architect agility in your organization. There were pieces missing from the story – and all these missing elements centered on the fundamental challenge of distributed computing.
The central challenge of distributed computing, of course, is how to get your various distributed bits to communicate with each other properly. Since those distributed components are typically heterogeneous, we must somehow come up with a common means of establishing interaction among components everybody can agree on. Yet, once we do that, we’ve necessarily compromised on flexibility, because changing how our components interact is a difficult, complex endeavor. Agile Architecture must solve this problem.
This problem pervades the entire history of APIs, from remote procedure calls to Web Services to RESTful APIs and everything in between. We must somehow contract interfaces in order to abstract the underlying functionality, thus providing loose coupling and with it, some measure of flexibility within the underlying code. Yet the very act of introducing such contracts (including REST’s uniform interface) is a compromise, since the interface itself now lacks flexibility. Basically, we look at the world of distributed computing and convince ourselves that the only way to get this stuff to work at all is to give up agility. The end result? Instead of being an enabler of business agility, enterprise IT is now cast in the role of limiter of business agility.
The central technical challenge for Agile Architecture, therefore, is how to achieve functionality and performance without having to trade off flexibility. This central compromise of distributed computing is the nut that EnterpriseWeb has been able to crack by adding an additional layer of abstraction over the entire distributed environment, coupled with an agent-oriented runtime engine that resolves abstracted references dynamically in real time. The bottom line: at least one vendor in the marketplace has shown that it is possible to deliver on the promise of Agile Architecture. And if one can, so can others.
The Four Central Patterns of Agile Architecture
Now it’s time for me to take off my EnterpriseWeb hat and put it in a drawer. In its place goes the Intellyx hat, blue brain and all. After all, the point of this article isn’t to talk about what a single vendor has accomplished. Rather, my goal is to lay out the essential patterns of Agile Architecture that heretofore have been difficult or impossible to implement in practice.
The context for these central patterns of Agile Architecture is the concept of architecting at the “meta” level I discuss in my book – the higher level of abstraction that EnterpriseWeb has been able to implement. At this meta level, there are four central patterns of Agile Architecture that are essential to resolving the fundamental compromise of distributed computing:
Dynamic Coupling. Tightly coupled interfaces require detailed knowledge of both sides of a distributed computing interaction, and any change on one side might break the other. Contracted interfaces introduce loose coupling, implementing an abstraction that separates interface from implementation, thus allowing changes to the implementation, but at the expense of a static interface. With dynamic coupling, interface differences are resolved dynamically at run time. The underlying integration engine must be able to find all relevant metadata and resolve any interaction issues in real time in order to allow the metadata to change from one request to the next.
Dynamic Schemas. Neither the WSDL files that specify Web Services, nor the URIs, HTTP verbs, and Internet Media Types that specify RESTful APIs adequately contract the message semantics for any interaction. As a result, metadata describing such semantics are scattered about in XML schemas or Custom Media Types or other arbitrary places, leading to the reintroduction of tight coupling and inflexibility. Dynamic schemas abstract all such semantic metadata in a consistent way, relying once again upon the integration engine to resolve these dynamic schemas for each interaction at run time.
Extreme Late Binding. Remember the original promise of SOA registries and the ungainly UDDI standard? The idea was that a Service consumer could automatically look up a Web Service at run time, and based upon the WSDL file it found as a result, bind to the newly discovered service in real time, potentially choosing a different Web Service for each interaction. Unfortunately, Web Services rarely if ever worked this way. Registries ended up doing little more than resolving endpoint references at run time, similar to the way DNS resolves domain names – in other words, they provided late binding. Such late binding adds some flexibility to an interaction, but typically at the expense of performance. Today, however, dynamic coupling and dynamic schemas enable any client to discover at run time all the metadata it requires to interact with any endpoint, without sacrificing performance – what I call extreme late binding.
- Dynamic Constraint Satisfaction. The publication of Services at design time for later discovery shifted SOA’s focus from integration to governance. How are you going to manage all the Services in your directory – let alone actually reuse any of them – unless you are able to create and enforce policies across your organization for how to do so properly? Yes, SOA management tools (helpfully renamed API management tools for the 2010s) provide some measure of API governance, but typically constrained to the technical context of software interactions. However, ask a business stakeholder what governance means to them, and you’ll get an entirely different context for the word. While some policies are technical in nature and apply narrowly to specific APIs or applications, others are more business-centric and apply broadly across departments or even entire organizations. To enforce the full breadth of such policies properly, your run time environment must essentially solve for the combination of all applicable policies dynamically at run time across the entire application environment – a classic dynamic constraint satisfaction problem.
If you believe any of these patterns is nothing more than an old pattern warmed over with a new name, you may be missing something important. True, each of these patterns builds upon patterns that came before, but they all advance the discussion of Agile Architecture to a new level. On the other hand, if you think any of the above patterns are too difficult to implement – if it sounds like you need some kind of magic wand to make this vision work – then I’m here to tell you, I’ve seen a platform that can implement all four patterns, and furthermore, can do so without sacrificing performance. Thus we know they are possible. The question now is, why isn’t everyone doing them?
You may, however, believe that you’re actually implementing some or all of these patterns, either as an architect or as a vendor whose product supports such patterns for your customers. If so, I want to hear from you. Intellyx wants to tell your story.
The Intellyx Take
The Agile Architecture bar is set. Vendors should know what their products must do. Architects have some insight into the patterns they must follow. And business stakeholders can finally rest assured that at least it’s possible to achieve technology-enabled business agility. True, it’s difficult. Many of the pieces are only just now falling into place. Levels of maturity are low across the board. But we’re on our way.
I’m looking forward to helping organizations like yours by leading the Agile Architecture story. I hope to see you in one of my all-new Bloomberg Agile Architecture courses, the sequel to my popular Licensed ZapThink Architect course, coming to Seattle, Dubai, Sydney, Washington DC, and London in the next few months. Or perhaps I can present a keynote at your corporate event or conference, or if you’re a vendor or service provider, consider an Intellyx unlimited advisory subscription or participating in our upcoming Agile Architecture Vendor Landscape Report. You can also join our LinkedIn group or subscribe to the Cortex newsletter. And don’t forget to see me speak on Breaking Down Enterprise Silos in the Cloud next week at Cloud Expo in New York City, where I’ll be giving away a copy of my book. I’m looking forward to working with you again!
The notion of customer journeys, of course, are central to the digital marketer’s playbook. Clearly, enterprises should focus their digital efforts on such journeys, as they represent customer interactions over time. But making customer journeys the centerpiece of the enterprise architecture, however, leaves more questions than answers. The challenge arises when EAs consider the context of the customer journey in the overall architecture as well as the architectural elements that make up each...
Apr. 30, 2016 02:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,915
Much of the discussion around cloud DevOps focuses on the speed with which companies need to get new code into production. This focus is important – because in an increasingly digital marketplace, new code enables new value propositions. New code is also often essential for maintaining competitive parity with market innovators. But new code doesn’t just have to deliver the functionality the business requires. It also has to behave well because the behavior of code in the cloud affects performan...
Apr. 30, 2016 02:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,324
APIs have taken the world by storm in recent years. The use of APIs has gone beyond just traditional "software" companies, to companies and organizations across industries using APIs to share information and power their applications. For some organizations, APIs are the biggest revenue drivers. For example, Salesforce generates nearly 50% of annual revenue through APIs. In other cases, APIs can increase a business's footprint and initiate collaboration. Netflix, for example, reported over 5 bi...
Apr. 29, 2016 09:30 PM EDT Reads: 2,545
As the software delivery industry continues to evolve and mature, the challenge of managing the growing list of the tools and processes becomes more daunting every day. Today, Application Lifecycle Management (ALM) platforms are proving most valuable by providing the governance, management and coordination for every stage of development, deployment and release. Recently, I spoke with Madison Moore at SD Times about the changing market and where ALM is headed.
Apr. 29, 2016 09:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,414
If there is anything we have learned by now, is that every business paves their own unique path for releasing software- every pipeline, implementation and practices are a bit different, and DevOps comes in all shapes and sizes. Software delivery practices are often comprised of set of several complementing (or even competing) methodologies – such as leveraging Agile, DevOps and even a mix of ITIL, to create the combination that’s most suitable for your organization and that maximize your busines...
Apr. 29, 2016 08:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,747
Struggling to keep up with increasing application demand? Learn how Platform as a Service (PaaS) can streamline application development processes and make resource management easy.
Apr. 29, 2016 07:45 PM EDT Reads: 2,011
New Relic, Inc. has announced a set of new features across the New Relic Software Analytics Cloud that offer IT operations teams increased visibility, and the ability to diagnose and resolve performance problems quickly. The new features further IT operations teams’ ability to leverage data and analytics, as well as drive collaboration and a common, shared understanding between teams. Software teams are under pressure to resolve performance issues quickly and improve availability, as the comple...
Apr. 29, 2016 07:30 PM EDT Reads: 2,401
The goal of any tech business worth its salt is to provide the best product or service to its clients in the most efficient and cost-effective way possible. This is just as true in the development of software products as it is in other product design services. Microservices, an app architecture style that leans mostly on independent, self-contained programs, are quickly becoming the new norm, so to speak. With this change comes a declining reliance on older SOAs like COBRA, a push toward more s...
Apr. 29, 2016 06:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,265
The proper isolation of resources is essential for multi-tenant environments. The traditional approach to isolate resources is, however, rather heavyweight. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Igor Drobiazko, co-founder of elastic.io, will draw upon their own experience with operating a Docker container-based infrastructure on a large scale and present a lightweight solution for resource isolation using microservices. He will also discuss the implementation of microservices in data and applicat...
Apr. 29, 2016 05:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,695
Join IBM June 8 at 18th Cloud Expo at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and learn how to innovate like a startup and scale for the enterprise. You need to deliver quality applications faster and cheaper, attract and retain customers with an engaging experience across devices, and seamlessly integrate your enterprise systems. And you can't take 12 months to do it.
Apr. 29, 2016 04:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,776
This is not a small hotel event. It is also not a big vendor party where politicians and entertainers are more important than real content. This is Cloud Expo, the world's longest-running conference and exhibition focused on Cloud Computing and all that it entails. If you want serious presentations and valuable insight about Cloud Computing for three straight days, then register now for Cloud Expo.
Apr. 29, 2016 03:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,669
SYS-CON Events announced today that Stratoscale, the software company developing the next generation data center operating system, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Stratoscale is revolutionizing the data center with a zero-to-cloud-in-minutes solution. With Stratoscale’s hardware-agnostic, Software Defined Data Center (SDDC) solution to store everything, run anything and scale everywhere...
Apr. 29, 2016 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,493
SYS-CON Events announced today that Men & Mice, the leading global provider of DNS, DHCP and IP address management overlay solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. The Men & Mice Suite overlay solution is already known for its powerful application in heterogeneous operating environments, enabling enterprises to scale without fuss. Building on a solid range of diverse platform support,...
Apr. 29, 2016 11:45 AM EDT Reads: 2,235
You deployed your app with the Bluemix PaaS and it's gaining some serious traction, so it's time to make some tweaks. Did you design your application in a way that it can scale in the cloud? Were you even thinking about the cloud when you built the app? If not, chances are your app is going to break. Check out this webcast to learn various techniques for designing applications that will scale successfully in Bluemix, for the confidence you need to take your apps to the next level and beyond.
Apr. 29, 2016 11:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,425
Digital means customer preferences and behavior are driving enterprise technology decisions to be sure, but let’s not forget our employees. After all, when we say customer, we mean customer writ large, including partners, supply chain participants, and yes, those salaried denizens whose daily labor forms the cornerstone of the enterprise. While your customers bask in the warm rays of your digital efforts, are your employees toiling away in the dark recesses of your enterprise, pecking data into...
Apr. 29, 2016 10:30 AM EDT Reads: 922
SYS-CON Events announced today that DatacenterDynamics has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7–9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. DatacenterDynamics is a brand of DCD Group, a global B2B media and publishing company that develops products to help senior professionals in the world's most ICT dependent organizations make risk-based infrastructure and capacity decisions.
Apr. 29, 2016 05:45 AM EDT Reads: 2,436
With DevOps becoming more well-known and established practice in nearly every industry that delivers software, it is important to continually reassess its efficacy. This week’s top 10 includes a discussion on how the quick uptake of DevOps adoption in the enterprise has posed some serious challenges. Additionally, organizations who have taken the DevOps plunge must find ways to find, hire and keep their DevOps talent in order to keep the machine running smoothly.
Apr. 29, 2016 04:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,336
Call it DevOps or not, if you are concerned about releasing more code faster and at a higher quality, the resulting software delivery chain and process will look and smell like DevOps. But for existing development teams, no matter what the velocity objective is, getting from here to there is not something that can be done without a plan. Moving your release cadence from months to weeks is not just about learning Agile practices and getting some automation tools. It involves people, tooling and ...
Apr. 29, 2016 03:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,465
Between the mockups and specs produced by analysts, and resulting applications built by developers, there exists a gulf where projects fail, costs spiral, and applications disappoint. Methodologies like Agile attempt to address this with intensified communication, with partial success but many limitations. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Charles Kendrick, CTO & Chief Architect at Isomorphic Software, will present a revolutionary model enabled by new technologies. Learn how business and devel...
Apr. 29, 2016 03:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,693
These days I mostly make my living as a consultant. Consultants in general are probably not the best loved group in the world. It is common to think of consultants wafting-in to your organization, telling you things that you already know and advising you to “change your culture”, whatever that means. Subsequently they depart, no-doubt with a fat fee, and leave you as you were before with the same problems and no progress made.
Apr. 28, 2016 08:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,443