Welcome!

Microservices Expo Authors: Liz McMillan, Pat Romanski, Elizabeth White, Derek Weeks, Mehdi Daoudi

Blog Feed Post

Oh No! We need another Practice Framework?

A few years ago I commented [in Beware the New Silos, ref 1 below] that in a complicated world we cope by specialization - and across the industry in general and in individual enterprises specifically we have created silos of our primary disciplines. The widely used frameworks and methods illustrate that common practice of discipline centricity. We don’t have to look too far for examples such as Enterprise Architecture (TOGAF), Governance (Cobit), SOA (separately by OASIS, OMG, Open Group), Agile methods (many and various), Business Process Management (BPM) and IT Service Management (ITIL). All of these disciplines, whether de jure or de facto standards, are all very narrowly focused with minimal treatment of how the disciplines might work together.

A good example is how Agile methods are tightly focused on application development and architecture is assumed to be an integral part of the Agile delivery project. Yet the reality in all enterprises is that significant aspects of architecture must be consistent at the domain or enterprise level. Another good example is how the three standards bodies OASIS, OMG and the Open Group were so divergent in their treatment of SOA, they commissioned a report [ref 2 below] to explain how these inherently duplicating standards and specifications relate to each other.

The level of adoption by enterprises or service providers of all these and similar practice frameworks and standards is of course highly variable. However it must be said that the very existence of the discipline based materials will frequently have some considerable influence on how enterprises organize themselves.

The thinking IT or business professional might also like to question just how up to date these frameworks are, and how they support today’s business goals, which for most of us have changed dramatically over the past few years. We might also speculate whether the education and certification ecosystems that feed off some discipline based frameworks may discourage rapid evolution. A good example is how TOGAF maintains the core architecture style as application centric and treats SOA as a style extension. This is really quite extraordinary because by now everyone knows and many accept the digital business is going to be inherently service oriented. In practice of course the TOGAF specifications are so extensive that making fundamental changes may be very difficult, but it demonstrates neatly how legacy capabilities become “part of the furniture”, not just in frameworks but also in delivered systems and services.

Which brings me right back to the question – do we really need another practice framework? 

For several years now I and my colleagues have been evolving and implementing a different transformation approach. Initially we focused on SOA. And as many will know, we were fundamentalists in this area and we published detailed and open meta models for the service architecture and delivery life cycle based on “everything is a Service”. This approach has been very successful, particularly when the service architecture conforms with a strong layered reference architecture and rigorous componentization of services and business capabilities. But because we always knew that there was no such thing as a green field, we worked to harvest knowledge from existing systems. And over time we made a virtue of this,  focusing on continuous modernization as a matter of principle. More recently we have further evolved the approach to embrace Agile and MDD, establishing an agile service factory and generating code from rigorously defined service specifications.

But we found many of our customers struggled to implement a strategic SOA because business change was implemented project by project. And sure enough, project specific services and SOA have become ubiquitous; you might say almost a contradiction in terms. To counter this we advise that the demand management process should be complemented with demand shaping that decomposes the customer solution based demand to discover requirements for services and other sharable components and then re-aggregates the raw component demand into related projects that coordinate the delivery of business solutions and strategic services. 

But even though this approach works well at a project and technical level, we frequently encounter difficulty in persuading business stakeholders to balance short term advantage with more strategic goals. And we recognize this is because business stakeholders habitually make investment decisions on flawed criteria, because the ROI model only looks at the solution in isolation, rather than looking at the strategic opportunities to implement better architecture, address portfolio rationalization and reduce technical debt. This prompted us to find ways of working more effectively with business stakeholders. To encourage them to understand and indeed influence the conceptual business model and to understand a richer underlying business model that reflects a more comprehensive cost benefit model. And this helps to bring LoB managers into the conversation on demand shaping – balancing immediate solution requirements with longer term goals. 

In effect what we did was to establish a service and solution delivery value chain that commences with the raw customer demand and finishes with the delivery and integration of some useful business capability, but crucially with a much improved balance between immediate solution needs and longer term strategic goals. And it’s this balance that many enterprises find extremely difficult to achieve.
The core problem is that disciplines are vertically integrated; set up to optimize the discipline at varying levels of abstraction. In contrast the value chain approach optimizes across disciplines in pursuit of overall value chain outcomes. And this is only achieved by value chain activities that encourage effective collaborations between multiple capabilities and disciplines.
In the beginning we (Everware-CBDI) had a framework - Service Architecture & Engineering (SAE). The name makes it clear this is a forward engineering approach, and whilst it was very strongly business driven, it would be fair to say that the business modeling components were less well worked than the architecture, design and delivery. And as described we have very naturally, as part of the process of supporting large enterprise initiatives, expanded the framework capabilities and embraced an inherently Agile approach.

The principles underlying the framework now include:
- business capability based modularity
- pervasive service architecture
- continuous modernization
- service evolution not (one time) delivery
- model driven architecture and development
- everything is inherently agile - iterative, evolving, and narrowly focused on specific business capability delivery.

So to answer my own question, we clearly need a new framework. But it's a very different practice framework to the ones that we are are accustomed to.
In our natural evolutionary process we recognized that the original (SAE) framework was merely one component of a much broader body of knowledge and practices. The new framework is goal driven, not discipline driven and incorporates the entire value chain of capabilities. But the capabilities are not standalone, they are effectively services that are executed in a way that supports the overall business goals of the enterprise, domain or program. We refer to this as  Service Oriented Application Modernization (SOAM).

Interestingly this is not a monolithic framework. It's vital to treat the framework as a set of capabilities with defined services and dependencies. Some might say, "eating our own dog food". In this way we don't make the same mistake as legacy frameworks such as TOGAF, that are very difficult to keep current.

Finally what happens to the existing discipline based frameworks and standards? Of course they can be used in conjunction with the SOAM framework. But we do need to be careful not to just inherit monolithic capabilities. Increasingly we find it necessary to do this very selectively in order to use capabilities that fit and support the value chain. Perhaps in time the various disciplines will recognize the monolithic nature of their practices, and decompose and modernize into more goal oriented components. Meanwhile, in SOAM we have demonstrated that it is possible to reinvent the wheel.

Some SOAM Components:
    Agile Service Factory
    Agile Modernization
    Conceptual (Agile) Business Modeling
    SOA Reference Framework

Ref 1: Beware the New Silos

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By David Sprott

David Sprott is a consultant, researcher and educator specializing in service oriented architecture, application modernization and cloud computing. Since 1997 David founded and led the well known think tank CBDI Forum providing unique research and guidance around loose coupled architecture, technologies and practices to F5000 companies and governments worldwide. As CEO of Everware-CBDI International a UK based corporation, he directs the global research and international consulting operations of the leading independent advisors on Service Oriented Application Modernization.

@MicroservicesExpo Stories
As many know, the first generation of Cloud Management Platform (CMP) solutions were designed for managing virtual infrastructure (IaaS) and traditional applications. But that's no longer enough to satisfy evolving and complex business requirements. In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Scott Davis, Embotics CTO, explored how next-generation CMPs ensure organizations can manage cloud-native and microservice-based application architectures, while also facilitating agile DevOps methodology. He expla...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Synametrics Technologies will exhibit at SYS-CON's 22nd International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 5-7, 2018, at the Javits Center in New York, NY. Synametrics Technologies is a privately held company based in Plainsboro, New Jersey that has been providing solutions for the developer community since 1997. Based on the success of its initial product offerings such as WinSQL, Xeams, SynaMan and Syncrify, Synametrics continues to create and hone in...
DevOps promotes continuous improvement through a culture of collaboration. But in real terms, how do you: Integrate activities across diverse teams and services? Make objective decisions with system-wide visibility? Use feedback loops to enable learning and improvement? With technology insights and real-world examples, in his general session at @DevOpsSummit, at 21st Cloud Expo, Andi Mann, Chief Technology Advocate at Splunk, explored how leading organizations use data-driven DevOps to clos...
"I focus on what we are calling CAST Highlight, which is our SaaS application portfolio analysis tool. It is an extremely lightweight tool that can integrate with pretty much any build process right now," explained Andrew Siegmund, Application Migration Specialist for CAST, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
The dynamic nature of the cloud means that change is a constant when it comes to modern cloud-based infrastructure. Delivering modern applications to end users, therefore, is a constantly shifting challenge. Delivery automation helps IT Ops teams ensure that apps are providing an optimal end user experience over hybrid-cloud and multi-cloud environments, no matter what the current state of the infrastructure is. To employ a delivery automation strategy that reflects your business rules, making r...
The past few years have brought a sea change in the way applications are architected, developed, and consumed—increasing both the complexity of testing and the business impact of software failures. How can software testing professionals keep pace with modern application delivery, given the trends that impact both architectures (cloud, microservices, and APIs) and processes (DevOps, agile, and continuous delivery)? This is where continuous testing comes in. D
Modern software design has fundamentally changed how we manage applications, causing many to turn to containers as the new virtual machine for resource management. As container adoption grows beyond stateless applications to stateful workloads, the need for persistent storage is foundational - something customers routinely cite as a top pain point. In his session at @DevOpsSummit at 21st Cloud Expo, Bill Borsari, Head of Systems Engineering at Datera, explored how organizations can reap the bene...
Admiral Calcote - also known as Lee Calcote (@lcalcote) or the Ginger Geek to his friends - gave a presentation entitled Characterizing and Contrasting Container Orchestrators at the 2016 All Day DevOps conference. Okay, he isn't really an admiral - nor does anyone call him that - but he used the title admiral to describe what container orchestrators do, relating it to an admiral directing a fleet of container ships. You could also say that they are like the conductor of an orchestra, directing...
The past few years have seen a huge increase in the amount of critical IT services that companies outsource to SaaS/IaaS/PaaS providers, be it security, storage, monitoring, or operations. Of course, along with any outsourcing to a service provider comes a Service Level Agreement (SLA) to ensure that the vendor is held financially responsible for any lapses in their service which affect the customer’s end users, and ultimately, their bottom line. SLAs can be very tricky to manage for a number ...
Our work, both with clients and with tools, has lead us to wonder how it is that organizations are handling compliance issues in the cloud. The big cloud vendors offer compliance for their infrastructure, but the shared responsibility model requires that you take certain steps to meet compliance requirements. Which lead us to start poking around a little more. We wanted to get a picture of what was available, and how it was being used. There is a lot of fluidity in this space, as in all things c...
Gaining visibility in today’s sprawling cloud infrastructure is complex and laborious, involving drilling down into tools offered by various cloud services providers. Enterprise IT organizations need smarter and effective tools at their disposal in order to address this pertinent problem. Gaining a 360 - degree view of the cloud costs requires collection and analysis of the cost data across all cloud infrastructures used inside an enterprise.
Some people are directors, managers, and administrators. Others are disrupters. Eddie Webb (@edwardawebb) is an IT Disrupter for Software Development Platforms at Liberty Mutual and was a presenter at the 2016 All Day DevOps conference. His talk, Organically DevOps: Building Quality and Security into the Software Supply Chain at Liberty Mutual, looked at Liberty Mutual's transformation to Continuous Integration, Continuous Delivery, and DevOps. For a large, heavily regulated industry, this task...
The goal of Microservices is to improve software delivery speed and increase system safety as scale increases. Microservices being modular these are faster to change and enables an evolutionary architecture where systems can change, as the business needs change. Microservices can scale elastically and by being service oriented can enable APIs natively. Microservices also reduce implementation and release cycle time and enables continuous delivery. This paper provides a logical overview of the Mi...
The notion of improving operational efficiency is conspicuously absent from the healthcare debate - neither Obamacare nor the newly proposed GOP plan discusses the impact that a step-function improvement in efficiency could have on access to healthcare (through more capacity), quality of healthcare services (through reduced wait times for patients) or cost (through better utilization of scarce, expensive assets).
Gone are the days when application development was the daunting task of the highly skilled developers backed with strong IT skills, low code application development has democratized app development and empowered a new generation of citizen developers. There was a time when app development was in the domain of people with complex coding and technical skills. We called these people by various names like programmers, coders, techies, and they usually worked in a world oblivious of the everyday pri...
The “Digital Era” is forcing us to engage with new methods to build, operate and maintain applications. This transformation also implies an evolution to more and more intelligent applications to better engage with the customers, while creating significant market differentiators. In both cases, the cloud has become a key enabler to embrace this digital revolution. So, moving to the cloud is no longer the question; the new questions are HOW and WHEN. To make this equation even more complex, most ...
Some journey to cloud on a mission, others, a deadline. Change management is useful when migrating to public, private or hybrid cloud environments in either case. For most, stakeholder engagement peaks during the planning and post migration phases of a project. Legacy engagements are fairly direct: projects follow a linear progression of activities (the “waterfall” approach) – change managers and application coders work from the same functional and technical requirements. Enablement and develo...
Kubernetes is an open source system for automating deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications. Kubernetes was originally built by Google, leveraging years of experience with managing container workloads, and is now a Cloud Native Compute Foundation (CNCF) project. Kubernetes has been widely adopted by the community, supported on all major public and private cloud providers, and is gaining rapid adoption in enterprises. However, Kubernetes may seem intimidating and complex ...
You know you need the cloud, but you’re hesitant to simply dump everything at Amazon since you know that not all workloads are suitable for cloud. You know that you want the kind of ease of use and scalability that you get with public cloud, but your applications are architected in a way that makes the public cloud a non-starter. You’re looking at private cloud solutions based on hyperconverged infrastructure, but you’re concerned with the limits inherent in those technologies.
For DevOps teams, the concepts behind service-oriented architecture (SOA) are nothing new. A style of software design initially made popular in the 1990s, SOA was an alternative to a monolithic application; essentially a collection of coarse-grained components that communicated with each other. Communication would involve either simple data passing or two or more services coordinating some activity. SOA served as a valid approach to solving many architectural problems faced by businesses, as app...