Welcome!

Microservices Expo Authors: Flint Brenton, Anders Wallgren, Elizabeth White, AppDynamics Blog, Pat Romanski

Blog Feed Post

Getting the maximum performance of your Java processes

therore-concurrent provides self-tuning thread-pools helping you to make the most of your system.

Recently, I have been working in the optimization of an OLTP system. The software has a SEDA architecture (Staged Event Driven Architecture) with lots of threads doing little works. I had to fight with the hard task of adjusting a hundred of parameters. Each of those parameters affected some others and so on.

For example if the number of concurrent database connections is set too low, it would cause a contention in getting connections. On the contrary, if that number is set too high, it could cause a lock-contention in the database when the threads want to access to some shared resources (index, row, block, etc.)

Even more, not always the processing of an event requires the same type of resources. A sudden change in the type of events that are being treated, can turn an optimal configuration into a suboptimal.

One of the most significant parameters is the number of threads assigned for each component. It is difficult to choose a good value if you don’t know how much the threads use each type of resource and how much are they coupled between each other.

Usually certain tasks have a higher priority and should be processed as soon as possible. This further complicates the choice of the configuration. Enforcing priorities and maximizing throughputs are opposite goals therefore it is necessary to define the scope of both.

In my experience a huge configurability can work against you. In a medium/big SOA system with a lot of service communications and complex workload profiles that even change over time, is almost impossible to get the optimal value for each of those parameters. Because of that I found interesting to develop a library that might be able to adapt quickly at runtime in order to make the most of the system.

Self-tuning thread-pool

Nowadays creating threads manually is not very common. Instead of that, thread-pools are frequently used. A thread-pool manages the creation and allocation of threads. JDK comes with some interesting and useful classes for managing threads. I list two of the most important:

  • ThreadPoolExecutor is a very flexible and configurable thread-pool that supports customization of queue size, minimum and maximum pool size, keep-alive time, etc.
  • Executors is a convenient class that creates thread-pools for the most usual cases.

I have developed the library therore-concurrent that takes advantage of those classes and extends some functionalities. The library contains analogous to the above classes.

  • SelfTuningExecutorService is a thread-pool that implements a mechanism for searching a good value for the pool size. The algorithm tries to maximize the throughput respecting the thread-pool priorities.
  • SelfTuningExecutors acts as the factory of SelfTuningExecutorService. It is recommended to use it as a singleton.

The following charts show how quickly SelfTuningExecutorService finds the optimal value.

selftuning_poolsize_executions_chart

Using SelfTuningExecutors directly

  • Add the dependency to the pom
  • <dependency>
        <groupId>net.therore</groupId>
        <artifactId>therore-concurrent</artifactId>
        <version>1.1.0</version>
    </dependency>
    

  • The following snippet shows how can it be used.
  • SelfTuningExecutors executors = SelfTuningExecutors.defaultSelfTuningExecutors();
    ExecutorServicce service = executors.newSelfTuningExecutor("executor-for-test", corePoolSize, initPoolSize
           , maximumPoolSize, priority, queueSize);
    service.execute(task);
    

The only new parameters are initPoolSize and priority.

  • initPoolSize is the initial amount of threads assigned to the pool.
  • priority is a positive number that works for SelfTuningExecutorService to limit the number of threads of this pool regarding others.

Integrating SelfTuningExecutors with Quartz Scheduler

Quartz-Scheduler has his own thread-pool interface and its name is “ThreadPool” (not surprise). The class SelfTuningThreadPool that is in the artifact therore-concurrent-quartz implements such interface. Integrating it is very easy, follow these steps:

  • Add the dependency to the pom
  • <dependency>
        <groupId>net.therore</groupId>
        <artifactId>therore-concurrent-quartz</artifactId>
        <version>1.1.0</version>
    </dependency>
    

  • Change the configuration properties of quartz
  • # org.quartz.threadPool.class = org.quartz.simpl.SimpleThreadPool
    # org.quartz.threadPool.threadCount = 1
    # org.quartz.threadPool.threadPriority = 5
    org.quartz.threadPool.class = net.therore.concurrent.quartz.SelfTuningThreadPool
    org.quartz.threadPool.corePoolSize = 1
    org.quartz.threadPool.initPoolSize = 1
    org.quartz.threadPool.maximumPoolSize = 100
    org.quartz.threadPool.priority = 5
    org.quartz.threadPool.queueSize = 2
    

Integrating SelfTuningExecutors with Apache Camel

I love Apache Camel. It offers a lot of components supporting integration with different technologies. But if none of them actually help you yet, it’s pretty easy to make your own component.

Camel’s team has thought very well the threading model. They use the concept (and interface) of ThreadPoolProfile which is a kind of thread-pool-template that you can use to instantiate several pools with the same configuration. If that is not enough, you can program your own implementation of ExecutorServiceManager, the Camel’s thread-pool provider. Simplifying, think about it like the Executors class of the JDK.

I’ve just done that, SelfTunigExecutorServiceManager is the name of my own implementation of ExecutorServiceManager. It is located in other maven module therore-concurrent-camel. I’ll explain how to use it.

  • Add the dependency to the pom
  • <dependency>
        <groupId>net.therore</groupId>
        <artifactId>therore-concurrent-camel</artifactId>
        <version>1.1.0</version>
    </dependency>
    

  • The following snippet contains two connected routes with SEDA component and SelfTunigExecutorServiceManager
  • SelfTunigExecutorServiceManager executorManager = new SelfTunigExecutorServiceManager(context);
    context.setExecutorServiceManager(executorManager);
    ThreadPoolProfile profile = new ThreadPoolProfile();
    profile.setId("self-tuning-profile");
    profile.setMaxPoolSize(100);
    profile.setMaxQueueSize(100);
    profile.setDefaultProfile(true);
    executorManager.setDefaultThreadPoolProfile(profile);        
    
    final String sedaEndpointUri = "seda:myseda?blockWhenFull=true&size=1";
    context.addRoutes(new RouteBuilder() {
       @Override
       public void configure() throws Exception {
           from("direct:in")
           .to(sedaEndpointUri);
       }
    });
    context.addRoutes(new RouteBuilder() {
       @Override
       public void configure() throws Exception {
           from(sedaEndpointUri)
           .threads(1, 100)
           .to("bean:mybean");
       }
    });
    
    ProducerTemplate template = context.createProducerTemplate();
    context.start();
    for (int i=0; i<ITERATIONS; i++) {
       template.sendBody("direct:in", "dummy string");
    }
    

Summary

I have figured out that there are many elements that might turn into selftuning ones. I chose ThreadPool because from my point of view is one of the most important, used and easy to test element.

Moreover, most of the modern libraries and frameworks feature different ways to extend their factories, providers and templates. All of that aims to develop general purpose classes and integrate them with lots of frameworks.

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Alfredo Diaz

Alfredo Diaz is a Java EE Architect with over 10 years of experience. He is an expert in SOA, real-time processing, scalability and HA. He is an Agile enthusiast.

@MicroservicesExpo Stories
As the software delivery industry continues to evolve and mature, the challenge of managing the growing list of the tools and processes becomes more daunting every day. Today, Application Lifecycle Management (ALM) platforms are proving most valuable by providing the governance, management and coordination for every stage of development, deployment and release. Recently, I spoke with Madison Moore at SD Times about the changing market and where ALM is headed.
If there is anything we have learned by now, is that every business paves their own unique path for releasing software- every pipeline, implementation and practices are a bit different, and DevOps comes in all shapes and sizes. Software delivery practices are often comprised of set of several complementing (or even competing) methodologies – such as leveraging Agile, DevOps and even a mix of ITIL, to create the combination that’s most suitable for your organization and that maximize your busines...
Struggling to keep up with increasing application demand? Learn how Platform as a Service (PaaS) can streamline application development processes and make resource management easy.
The goal of any tech business worth its salt is to provide the best product or service to its clients in the most efficient and cost-effective way possible. This is just as true in the development of software products as it is in other product design services. Microservices, an app architecture style that leans mostly on independent, self-contained programs, are quickly becoming the new norm, so to speak. With this change comes a declining reliance on older SOAs like COBRA, a push toward more s...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Peak 10, Inc., a national IT infrastructure and cloud services provider, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Peak 10 provides reliable, tailored data center and network services, cloud and managed services. Its solutions are designed to scale and adapt to customers’ changing business needs, enabling them to lower costs, improve performance and focus inter...
This is not a small hotel event. It is also not a big vendor party where politicians and entertainers are more important than real content. This is Cloud Expo, the world's longest-running conference and exhibition focused on Cloud Computing and all that it entails. If you want serious presentations and valuable insight about Cloud Computing for three straight days, then register now for Cloud Expo.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Stratoscale, the software company developing the next generation data center operating system, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Stratoscale is revolutionizing the data center with a zero-to-cloud-in-minutes solution. With Stratoscale’s hardware-agnostic, Software Defined Data Center (SDDC) solution to store everything, run anything and scale everywhere...
Digital means customer preferences and behavior are driving enterprise technology decisions to be sure, but let’s not forget our employees. After all, when we say customer, we mean customer writ large, including partners, supply chain participants, and yes, those salaried denizens whose daily labor forms the cornerstone of the enterprise. While your customers bask in the warm rays of your digital efforts, are your employees toiling away in the dark recesses of your enterprise, pecking data into...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Men & Mice, the leading global provider of DNS, DHCP and IP address management overlay solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. The Men & Mice Suite overlay solution is already known for its powerful application in heterogeneous operating environments, enabling enterprises to scale without fuss. Building on a solid range of diverse platform support,...
You deployed your app with the Bluemix PaaS and it's gaining some serious traction, so it's time to make some tweaks. Did you design your application in a way that it can scale in the cloud? Were you even thinking about the cloud when you built the app? If not, chances are your app is going to break. Check out this webcast to learn various techniques for designing applications that will scale successfully in Bluemix, for the confidence you need to take your apps to the next level and beyond.
I had the opportunity to catch up with Chris Corriere - DevOps Engineer at AutoTrader - to talk about his experiences in the realm of Rugged DevOps. We discussed automation, culture and collaboration, and which thought leaders he is following. Chris Corriere: Hey, I'm Chris Corriere. I'm a DevOps Engineer AutoTrader. Derek Weeks: Today we're going to talk about Rugged DevOps. It's a subject that's gaining a lot of traction in the community but not a lot of people are really familiar with wh...
Wow, if you ever wanted to learn about Rugged DevOps (some call it DevSecOps), sit down for a spell with Shannon Lietz, Ian Allison and Scott Kennedy from Intuit. We discussed a number of important topics including internal war games, culture hacking, gamification of Rugged DevOps and starting as a small team. There are 100 gold nuggets in this conversation for novices and experts alike.
In 2006, Martin Fowler posted his now famous essay on Continuous Integration. Looking back, what seemed revolutionary, radical or just plain crazy is now common, pedestrian and "just what you do." I love it. Back then, building and releasing software was a real pain. Integration was something you did at the end, after code complete, and we didn't know how long it would take. Some people may recall how we, as an industry, spent a massive amount of time integrating code from one team with another...
SYS-CON Events announced today that DatacenterDynamics has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7–9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. DatacenterDynamics is a brand of DCD Group, a global B2B media and publishing company that develops products to help senior professionals in the world's most ICT dependent organizations make risk-based infrastructure and capacity decisions.
With DevOps becoming more well-known and established practice in nearly every industry that delivers software, it is important to continually reassess its efficacy. This week’s top 10 includes a discussion on how the quick uptake of DevOps adoption in the enterprise has posed some serious challenges. Additionally, organizations who have taken the DevOps plunge must find ways to find, hire and keep their DevOps talent in order to keep the machine running smoothly.
Call it DevOps or not, if you are concerned about releasing more code faster and at a higher quality, the resulting software delivery chain and process will look and smell like DevOps. But for existing development teams, no matter what the velocity objective is, getting from here to there is not something that can be done without a plan. Moving your release cadence from months to weeks is not just about learning Agile practices and getting some automation tools. It involves people, tooling and ...
Between the mockups and specs produced by analysts, and resulting applications built by developers, there exists a gulf where projects fail, costs spiral, and applications disappoint. Methodologies like Agile attempt to address this with intensified communication, with partial success but many limitations. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Charles Kendrick, CTO & Chief Architect at Isomorphic Software, will present a revolutionary model enabled by new technologies. Learn how business and devel...
The notion of customer journeys, of course, are central to the digital marketer’s playbook. Clearly, enterprises should focus their digital efforts on such journeys, as they represent customer interactions over time. But making customer journeys the centerpiece of the enterprise architecture, however, leaves more questions than answers. The challenge arises when EAs consider the context of the customer journey in the overall architecture as well as the architectural elements that make up each...
Much of the discussion around cloud DevOps focuses on the speed with which companies need to get new code into production. This focus is important – because in an increasingly digital marketplace, new code enables new value propositions. New code is also often essential for maintaining competitive parity with market innovators. But new code doesn’t just have to deliver the functionality the business requires. It also has to behave well because the behavior of code in the cloud affects performan...
APIs have taken the world by storm in recent years. The use of APIs has gone beyond just traditional "software" companies, to companies and organizations across industries using APIs to share information and power their applications. For some organizations, APIs are the biggest revenue drivers. For example, Salesforce generates nearly 50% of annual revenue through APIs. In other cases, APIs can increase a business's footprint and initiate collaboration. Netflix, for example, reported over 5 bi...