Welcome!

Microservices Expo Authors: Elizabeth White, Liz McMillan, Carmen Gonzalez, Pat Romanski, Yeshim Deniz

Blog Feed Post

Getting the maximum performance of your Java processes

therore-concurrent provides self-tuning thread-pools helping you to make the most of your system.

Recently, I have been working in the optimization of an OLTP system. The software has a SEDA architecture (Staged Event Driven Architecture) with lots of threads doing little works. I had to fight with the hard task of adjusting a hundred of parameters. Each of those parameters affected some others and so on.

For example if the number of concurrent database connections is set too low, it would cause a contention in getting connections. On the contrary, if that number is set too high, it could cause a lock-contention in the database when the threads want to access to some shared resources (index, row, block, etc.)

Even more, not always the processing of an event requires the same type of resources. A sudden change in the type of events that are being treated, can turn an optimal configuration into a suboptimal.

One of the most significant parameters is the number of threads assigned for each component. It is difficult to choose a good value if you don’t know how much the threads use each type of resource and how much are they coupled between each other.

Usually certain tasks have a higher priority and should be processed as soon as possible. This further complicates the choice of the configuration. Enforcing priorities and maximizing throughputs are opposite goals therefore it is necessary to define the scope of both.

In my experience a huge configurability can work against you. In a medium/big SOA system with a lot of service communications and complex workload profiles that even change over time, is almost impossible to get the optimal value for each of those parameters. Because of that I found interesting to develop a library that might be able to adapt quickly at runtime in order to make the most of the system.

Self-tuning thread-pool

Nowadays creating threads manually is not very common. Instead of that, thread-pools are frequently used. A thread-pool manages the creation and allocation of threads. JDK comes with some interesting and useful classes for managing threads. I list two of the most important:

  • ThreadPoolExecutor is a very flexible and configurable thread-pool that supports customization of queue size, minimum and maximum pool size, keep-alive time, etc.
  • Executors is a convenient class that creates thread-pools for the most usual cases.

I have developed the library therore-concurrent that takes advantage of those classes and extends some functionalities. The library contains analogous to the above classes.

  • SelfTuningExecutorService is a thread-pool that implements a mechanism for searching a good value for the pool size. The algorithm tries to maximize the throughput respecting the thread-pool priorities.
  • SelfTuningExecutors acts as the factory of SelfTuningExecutorService. It is recommended to use it as a singleton.

The following charts show how quickly SelfTuningExecutorService finds the optimal value.

selftuning_poolsize_executions_chart

Using SelfTuningExecutors directly

  • Add the dependency to the pom
  • <dependency>
        <groupId>net.therore</groupId>
        <artifactId>therore-concurrent</artifactId>
        <version>1.1.0</version>
    </dependency>
    

  • The following snippet shows how can it be used.
  • SelfTuningExecutors executors = SelfTuningExecutors.defaultSelfTuningExecutors();
    ExecutorServicce service = executors.newSelfTuningExecutor("executor-for-test", corePoolSize, initPoolSize
           , maximumPoolSize, priority, queueSize);
    service.execute(task);
    

The only new parameters are initPoolSize and priority.

  • initPoolSize is the initial amount of threads assigned to the pool.
  • priority is a positive number that works for SelfTuningExecutorService to limit the number of threads of this pool regarding others.

Integrating SelfTuningExecutors with Quartz Scheduler

Quartz-Scheduler has his own thread-pool interface and its name is “ThreadPool” (not surprise). The class SelfTuningThreadPool that is in the artifact therore-concurrent-quartz implements such interface. Integrating it is very easy, follow these steps:

  • Add the dependency to the pom
  • <dependency>
        <groupId>net.therore</groupId>
        <artifactId>therore-concurrent-quartz</artifactId>
        <version>1.1.0</version>
    </dependency>
    

  • Change the configuration properties of quartz
  • # org.quartz.threadPool.class = org.quartz.simpl.SimpleThreadPool
    # org.quartz.threadPool.threadCount = 1
    # org.quartz.threadPool.threadPriority = 5
    org.quartz.threadPool.class = net.therore.concurrent.quartz.SelfTuningThreadPool
    org.quartz.threadPool.corePoolSize = 1
    org.quartz.threadPool.initPoolSize = 1
    org.quartz.threadPool.maximumPoolSize = 100
    org.quartz.threadPool.priority = 5
    org.quartz.threadPool.queueSize = 2
    

Integrating SelfTuningExecutors with Apache Camel

I love Apache Camel. It offers a lot of components supporting integration with different technologies. But if none of them actually help you yet, it’s pretty easy to make your own component.

Camel’s team has thought very well the threading model. They use the concept (and interface) of ThreadPoolProfile which is a kind of thread-pool-template that you can use to instantiate several pools with the same configuration. If that is not enough, you can program your own implementation of ExecutorServiceManager, the Camel’s thread-pool provider. Simplifying, think about it like the Executors class of the JDK.

I’ve just done that, SelfTunigExecutorServiceManager is the name of my own implementation of ExecutorServiceManager. It is located in other maven module therore-concurrent-camel. I’ll explain how to use it.

  • Add the dependency to the pom
  • <dependency>
        <groupId>net.therore</groupId>
        <artifactId>therore-concurrent-camel</artifactId>
        <version>1.1.0</version>
    </dependency>
    

  • The following snippet contains two connected routes with SEDA component and SelfTunigExecutorServiceManager
  • SelfTunigExecutorServiceManager executorManager = new SelfTunigExecutorServiceManager(context);
    context.setExecutorServiceManager(executorManager);
    ThreadPoolProfile profile = new ThreadPoolProfile();
    profile.setId("self-tuning-profile");
    profile.setMaxPoolSize(100);
    profile.setMaxQueueSize(100);
    profile.setDefaultProfile(true);
    executorManager.setDefaultThreadPoolProfile(profile);        
    
    final String sedaEndpointUri = "seda:myseda?blockWhenFull=true&size=1";
    context.addRoutes(new RouteBuilder() {
       @Override
       public void configure() throws Exception {
           from("direct:in")
           .to(sedaEndpointUri);
       }
    });
    context.addRoutes(new RouteBuilder() {
       @Override
       public void configure() throws Exception {
           from(sedaEndpointUri)
           .threads(1, 100)
           .to("bean:mybean");
       }
    });
    
    ProducerTemplate template = context.createProducerTemplate();
    context.start();
    for (int i=0; i<ITERATIONS; i++) {
       template.sendBody("direct:in", "dummy string");
    }
    

Summary

I have figured out that there are many elements that might turn into selftuning ones. I chose ThreadPool because from my point of view is one of the most important, used and easy to test element.

Moreover, most of the modern libraries and frameworks feature different ways to extend their factories, providers and templates. All of that aims to develop general purpose classes and integrate them with lots of frameworks.

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Alfredo Diaz

Alfredo Diaz is a Java EE Architect with over 10 years of experience. He is an expert in SOA, real-time processing, scalability and HA. He is an Agile enthusiast.

@MicroservicesExpo Stories
In the world of DevOps there are ‘known good practices’ – aka ‘patterns’ – and ‘known bad practices’ – aka ‘anti-patterns.' Many of these patterns and anti-patterns have been developed from real world experience, especially by the early adopters of DevOps theory; but many are more feasible in theory than in practice, especially for more recent entrants to the DevOps scene. In this power panel at @DevOpsSummit at 18th Cloud Expo, moderated by DevOps Conference Chair Andi Mann, panelists discusse...
When people aren’t talking about VMs and containers, they’re talking about serverless architecture. Serverless is about no maintenance. It means you are not worried about low-level infrastructural and operational details. An event-driven serverless platform is a great use case for IoT. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Animesh Singh, an STSM and Lead for IBM Cloud Platform and Infrastructure, will detail how to build a distributed serverless, polyglot, microservices framework using open source tec...
Cloud Expo, Inc. has announced today that Andi Mann returns to 'DevOps at Cloud Expo 2016' as Conference Chair The @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo will take place on November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. "DevOps is set to be one of the most profound disruptions to hit IT in decades," said Andi Mann. "It is a natural extension of cloud computing, and I have seen both firsthand and in independent research the fantastic results DevOps delivers. So I am excited t...
More and more companies are looking to microservices as an architectural pattern for breaking apart applications into more manageable pieces so that agile teams can deliver new features quicker and more effectively. What this pattern has done more than anything to date is spark organizational transformations, setting the foundation for future application development. In practice, however, there are a number of considerations to make that go beyond simply “build, ship, and run,” which changes ho...
Gartner is now treating algorithms like they are some kind of innovative addition to the modern digital discussion. Presumably the brilliant minds there have some novel insight into algorithms and, yes, the Algorithm Economy that CIOs should sit up and take notice of. Not only are algorithms nothing new, but much of what Gartner is saying about them is obvious. The bigger picture here is that software continues to improve, and enterprises are becoming increasingly software-driven, in part bec...
The Internet of Things is clearly many things: data collection and analytics, wearables, Smart Grids and Smart Cities, the Industrial Internet, and more. Cool platforms like Arduino, Raspberry Pi, Intel's Galileo and Edison, and a diverse world of sensors are making the IoT a great toy box for developers in all these areas. In this Power Panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists discussed what things are the most important, which will have the most profound...
The Internet of Things (IoT) is growing rapidly by extending current technologies, products and networks. By 2020, Cisco estimates there will be 50 billion connected devices. Gartner has forecast revenues of over $300 billion, just to IoT suppliers. Now is the time to figure out how you’ll make money – not just create innovative products. With hundreds of new products and companies jumping into the IoT fray every month, there’s no shortage of innovation. Despite this, McKinsey/VisionMobile data...
NHK, Japan Broadcasting, will feature the upcoming @ThingsExpo Silicon Valley in a special 'Internet of Things' and smart technology documentary that will be filmed on the expo floor between November 3 to 5, 2015, in Santa Clara. NHK is the sole public TV network in Japan equivalent to the BBC in the UK and the largest in Asia with many award-winning science and technology programs. Japanese TV is producing a documentary about IoT and Smart technology and will be covering @ThingsExpo Silicon Val...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Men & Mice, the leading global provider of DNS, DHCP and IP address management overlay solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. The Men & Mice Suite overlay solution is already known for its powerful application in heterogeneous operating environments, enabling enterprises to scale without fuss. Building on a solid range of diverse platform support,...
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place June 7-9, 2016 at Javits Center, New York City and Nov 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with the 18th International @CloudExpo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world and ThingsExpo New York Call for Papers is now open.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Catchpoint Systems, Inc., a provider of innovative web and infrastructure monitoring solutions, has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's DevOps Summit at 18th Cloud Expo New York, which will take place June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Catchpoint is a leading Digital Performance Analytics company that provides unparalleled insight into customer-critical services to help consistently deliver an amazing customer experience. Designed...
@DevOpsSummit taking place June 7-9, 2016 at Javits Center, New York City, and Nov 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with the 18th International @CloudExpo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world.
Cloud Expo, Inc. has announced today that Andi Mann returns to 'DevOps at Cloud Expo 2016' as Conference Chair The @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York. "DevOps is set to be one of the most profound disruptions to hit IT in decades," said Andi Mann. "It is a natural extension of cloud computing, and I have seen both firsthand and in independent research the fantastic results DevOps delivers. So I am excited to help the g...
Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) will feature the upcoming 18th Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo in a New York news documentary about the "New IT for the Future." The documentary will cover how big companies are transmitting or adopting the new IT for the future and will be filmed on the expo floor between June 7-June 9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York. KBS has long been a leader in the development of the broadcasting culture of Korea. As the key public service broadcaster of Korea...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Addteq will exhibit at SYS-CON's @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo New York, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Addteq is one of the top 10 Platinum Atlassian Experts who specialize in DevOps, custom and continuous integration, automation, plugin development, and consulting for midsize and global firms. Addteq firmly believes that automation is essential for successful software releases. Addteq centers its products a...
In the rush to compete in the digital age, a successful digital transformation is essential, but many organizations are setting themselves up for failure. There’s a common misconception that the process is just about technology, but it’s not. It’s about your business. It shouldn’t be treated as an isolated IT project; it should be driven by business needs with the committed involvement of a range of stakeholders.
SYS-CON Events announced today that FalconStor Software® Inc., a 15-year innovator of software-defined storage solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. FalconStor Software®, Inc. (NASDAQ: FALC) is a leading software-defined storage company offering a converged, hardware-agnostic, software-defined storage and data services platform. Its flagship solution FreeStor®, utilizes a horizonta...
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo 2016 in New York and Silicon Valley. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 17th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Column Technologies will exhibit at SYS-CON's @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Established in 1998, Column Technologies is a global technology solutions provider with over 400 employees, headquartered in the United States with offices in Canada, India, and the United Kingdom. Column Technologies provides “Best of Breed” technology solutions that automate the key DevOps principal...
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftLayer, an IBM Company, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. SoftLayer, an IBM Company, provides cloud infrastructure as a service from a growing number of data centers and network points of presence around the world. SoftLayer’s customers range from Web startups to global enterprises.