Welcome!

Microservices Expo Authors: Elizabeth White, Carmen Gonzalez, Pat Romanski, Yeshim Deniz, Liz McMillan

Related Topics: Cloud Security, Java IoT, Microservices Expo, Linux Containers, Open Source Cloud, Containers Expo Blog

Cloud Security: Article

The Definitive Guide to Heartbleed and Enterprise Mobility

There has been a lot of media attention on Heartbleed and as always that means a lot of bizarre and often conflicting advice

By Peter Rogers, Principal Mobility Architect, Cognizant

There has been a lot of media attention on Heartbleed and as always that means a lot of bizarre and often conflicting advice.  I sat down (for a very long time) to find the truth of the matter and bring it together in one single article for those involved in enterprise mobility.

What is Heartbleed?
"The [Heartbleed] bug is in the OpenSSL's implementation of the TLS/DTLS (transport layer security protocols) heartbeat extension (RFC6520). When it is exploited it leads to the leak of memory contents from the server to the client, and from the client to the server. The bug was introduced to OpenSSL in December 2011 and has been out in the wild since OpenSSL release 1.0.1 on 14th of March 2012. OpenSSL 1.0.1g released on 7th of April 2014 fixes the bug."
[http://www.heartbeat.com/]

"An attacker can retrieve a block of memory of the server up to 64kb. There is no limit on the number of attacks that can be performed. The attacker has no control over the memory region where the block is read from. Sensitive information that can be obtained is: SSL private keys; Basic authorization strings (username / password combinations); and source code [most important also cookies]. This bug affects both sides of the connection. Not only will client certificates not save you from having to update your server certificate, they can be read from the client (along with your username, password etc.) by any server you connect to."
[http://blog.fox-it.com/2014/04/08/openssl-heartbleed-bug-live-blog/]

"The Heartbleed bug is an example of Buffer Over-Read and that means that the offending OpenSSL heartbeat code does not check that this length is the actual length sent in the heartbeat request, allowing the request to ask for more data than it should be able to retrieve. The code then copies the amount of data indicated by the length from the incoming message to the outgoing message. If the length is longer than the incoming message, the software just keeps copying data past the end of the message. Since the length variable is 16 bits, you can request up to 65,535 bytes from memory. The data that lives past the end of the incoming message is from a kind of no-man's land that the program should not be accessing and may contain data left behind from other parts of OpenSSL."
[http://blog.cloudflare.com/answering-the-critical-question-can-you-get-private-ssl-keys-using-heartbleed]

The non-technical explanation from XKCD is slightly easier to follow (http://xkcd.com/1354/).

Here is a very good FAQ and an actual screen shot of a Heartbleed attack from Fox-IT.

The important thing to note is that not only can a client potentially read data from a server but the converse is also true. This impacts mobile clients too and although Apple claim they are safe there were allegedly concerns around Android 4.1.1. If a client application is vulnerable on a mobile or desktop device then equally the server can act as a honey trap to steal information from the client. Web browser software and IM clients are the biggest concern, so please make sure you don't use obscure and vulnerable software.

Who is stealing what and why?

The important question is how we got into this mess. The first thing to point out is that this is not a floor in SSL/TSP, instead it is an implementation problem in the open source OpenSSL library.  A major contributing factor has been that TLS versions 1.2 came with OpenSSL 1.0.1 and after the BEAST attack everyone rushed to implement TLS 1.2. The current theory doing the rounds is that the NSA had already ‘found ways around' SSL some time ago and this could have been by taking advantage of the Heartbleed bug. It is however noted that Man in the Middle (MITM) techniques are far easier, especially as some large companies act as their own Certificate Authority (CA). Edward Snowden leaked the existence of BULLRUN (a highly classified decryption program run by the NSA) and subsequently Edgehill (a similar program run by GCHQ) which subsequently prompted Google to double the size of their encryptions keys. We know that a number of companies knew about the vulnerability before it went public because they stated they had applied the patches at least a week ago. If you think about it a minute then OpenSSL is open source code which meant anybody could have worked it out and kept it a secret.

They say the exploit leaves no trace and so nobody actually knows if they have been targeted. Actually that statement isn't strictly true. A single heartbeat can potentially grab 64K of memory however an attacker can either keep reconnecting or during an active TLS connection keep requesting arbitrary number of 64 kilobyte chunks of memory content. There are now companies who are configuring their network monitoring software to watch for abnormal behaviour such as Fox-IT, who have developed a set of Snort signatures to detect successful exploitation of the bug.

The most important thing is what happens next and most hackers will be after what Heartbleed.com classes as primary key material.

"These are the crown jewels, the encryption keys themselves. Leaked secret keys allows the attacker to decrypt any past and future traffic to the protected services and to impersonate the service at will. Any protection given by the encryption and the signatures in the X.509 certificates can be bypassed. Recovery from this leak requires patching the vulnerability, revocation of the compromised keys and reissuing and redistributing new keys. Even doing all this will still leave any traffic intercepted by the attacker in the past still vulnerable to decryption. All this has to be done by the owners of the services."
[http://www.heartbeat.com/]

Let's imagine that a service provider has been using a vulnerable version of Open SSL 1.0.1 and the types of hacker that may target them based on time ranges:

  1. Soon after the vulnerability was released (14th of March 2012)
  2. Two or three weeks before the announcement was made public but was still being discussed in hushed circles
  3. Ever since the announcement (April 7th)
  4. Ever since the Heartbleed proof of concepts went live (April 8th)

The first group are likely to be very serious hackers or even possibly Government sponsored activities which are nothing to worry about unless you are of significant danger to anyone. The second group are likely to be serious hackers or service providers testing out vulnerabilities in their systems (and potentially partner solutions) after they learn of the issues. The third group is the rest of the world and depends on the general availability of OpenSSL vulnerability scanning software at that date. The fourth group covers hobbyist hackers because the proof of concepts are open source and highly available.

Unfortunately as of April 8th then anyone in the world can now test for this vulnerability using this widely shared Python Script (https://gist.github.com/takeshixx/10107280) and that puts it in the domain of hobbyists. Anyone can now dump a bit of RAM from a vulnerable server. It would definitely take a professional who can write their own script to make repeated heartbeats attacks and then got lucky with the timing of a server restart on a vulnerable operating system to be able to pull out a private encryption key. However, even an amateur can use Session Hijacking which means you look for cookies containing session IDs. In a single grab of memory then you are equally as likely to obtain a session ID or a username and password combination, and this is slightly harder to track for abnormal behaviour.

An example of which is running the Python proof of concept against a vulnerable JIRA ticketing system and pulling out a JSESSIONID (which is JIRA's way of tracking your HTTP session). If the system requires authentication then you can just insert the stolen cookie into the browser and become that user on the JIRA installation. (https://www.mattslifebytes.com/?p=533)

Can you actually steal a private key?

The Heartbleed bug is an example of buffer over-read and here is the offending code for the programmers amongst us:

p = &s->s3->rrec.data[0]

[...]

hbtype = *p++;
n2s(p, payload);
pl = p;

[...]

buffer = OPENSSL_malloc(1 + 2 + payload + padding);
bp = buffer;

[...]

memcpy(bp, pl, payload);

In NGINX, the keys are loaded immediately when the process is started, which puts the keys very low in the memory space. This makes it unlikely that incoming requests will be allocated with a lower address space. If NGINX is reloaded, it starts a new process and loads the keys right away, putting them at a low address. On NGINX you can therefore retrieve user credentials, cookies and even public parts of the certificate but so far not the private part. It all depends therefore on the operating system and how often the servers are restarted. CloudFlare have even issued a challenge by leaving a server running nginx-1.5.13 linked against OpenSSL 1.0.1.f on Ubuntu 13.10 x86_6

That said there appears to be a proof of concept working on Apache for a first request which corresponds with the server being rebooted.

The Certificate Revocation Tsunami
There is a genuine importance to the CloudFlare challenge and that is that if private keys can be stolen then there will be a whole lot of companies requesting certificates all at once leading to a so called Certificate Revocation Tsunami. Certificate Authorities are supposed to revoke certificates within 24 hours if there is any evidence of a key compromise. However, even if all of the affected certificates were to be revoked, contemporary web browser software handles certificate revocation poorly. For example, some browsers only perform OCSP revocation checks for Extended Validation certificates, while others ignore certificate revocation lists completely. The other concern is the rush to create new certificates will lead to incorrect certificates being generated which in turn leads to Man In The Middle (MITM) exploits down the line.

"The certificate authority infrastructure was never built to do a mass revocation of this many certificates and because of the way the infrastructure is built, if you did do a mass revocation of millions of certificates it would significantly slow down the performance of the Internet itself, which is potentially very, very bad."
[http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-switch/wp/2014/04/11/no-joke-this-company-wants-to-be-hacked-with-heartbleed/]

"Such is the haste to fix the fallout of the Heartbleed bug, some certificate authorities and website administrators have been making careless mistakes. PayPal's Hosted Message Applications, such as the one at https://view.paypal-communication.com, are now using Extended Validation certificates issued by VeriSign on 10 April 2014. The CAB Forum requires certificate authorities to adhere to a stringent set of guidelines [pdf] when issuing EV certificates, and it is the CA's responsibility to verify the accuracy of the information in the certificate. In particular, they must verify that the legal name of the subject in an EV certificate matches the name which appears on official government records. However, this verification does not appear to have been performed correctly in the case of these certificates."
[http://news.netcraft.com/archives/2014/04/11/heartbleed-certificate-revocation-tsunami-yet-to-arrive.html]

How can I protect myself?

Here is a list of all the password changing advice from the various companies and the results of a vulnerable scan performed on April 8, 12:00 UTC.

"Only 30,000 of the 500,000+ SSL certificates affected by the Heartbleed bug have been reissued up until today, and even fewer certificates have been revoked. Some of the first sites to deploy newly issued certificates in response to the OpenSSL vulnerability included Yahoo, Adobe, CloudFlare, DuckDuckGo, GitHub, Reddit , Launchpad, PayPal, Netflix and Amazon's CloudFront content delivery network."
[http://news.netcraft.com/archives/2014/04/11/heartbleed-certificate-revocation-tsunami-yet-to-arrive.html]

Fox-IT have actually listed a set of vulnerability tests, along with advice of the next steps and have developed a set of Snort signatures to detect successful exploitation of the bug.

Vendors are recommended to perform the following operations:

  • Upgrade the OpenSSL version to 1.0.1g (you can also recompile your OpenSSL 1.0.1 with the compile time option -DOPENSSL_NO_HEARTBEATS)
  • Request revocation of the current SSL certificate
  • Regenerate your private key
  • Request and replace the SSL certificate
  • Restart your services

Upgrading to OpenSSL 1.0.1g  does not automatically restart your services and likewise certificate revocation and replacement is a whole different step from ‘patching your server'.

  • If a vendor does not restart their services then their sessions are still vulnerable
  • Even if a vendor does revoke their certificates then some web browsers ignore the revocation
  • If a vendor does not replace their certificates then if their private key was stolen then they are wide open

If we look at the situation with WordPress then it appears they applied the patches but may not have replaced their certificates yet. I can also see smaller companies forgetting to restart their services after apply the OpenSSL 1.0.1g upgrade.

Should I change my password?

If you look at this list of vendors and their statements then the following rules apply:

  • You are safe if a vendor never used OpenSSL (remember SSL isn't broken itself, just one implementation of it including heartbeats)
  • You are safe if a vendor used an earlier version of OpenSSL (0.9.8 / 1.0.0)
  • You are moderately safe if a vendor upgraded to OpenSSL 1.0.1g, restarted their services and issued new certificates, before the public announcement on April 7th (apart from in the case of serious hackers)
  • You are at risk if a vendor upgraded to OpenSSL 1.0.1g, restarted their services and issued new certificates, sometime after April 7th (the longer the gap the higher the risk) and should change your passwords
  • You are at risk if a vendor upgraded to OpenSSL 1.0.1g, restarted their services and has not issued new certificates. You have a personal decision to make regarding changing passwords.

o   There is a small risk a private key could have been stolen and so even if you change your password then the site could still be vulnerable and you just gave your new password away

o   That said if the key did not get stolen then changing passwords prevents a hacker using your stolen details in the future.

  • You are at risk if a vendor either did not upgrade to OpenSSL 1.0.1g across all their services or forgot to restart their server. It is probably pretty pointless doing anything yet if that is the case.
  • You are at risk if a vendor made a nebulous statement like "We patched our servers" but was not drawn about restarting their services or issuing new certificates and should look to Internet forums
  • You are risk if a vendor has revoked their certificate but not issues a new certificate yet. Your web browser may ignore the certificate revocation and be open to MITM attacks.
  • You are at risk if you used client side software using a vulnerable version of OpenSSL and could have leaked confidential information from your desktop or mobile device

o   Double check the application that you use on Internet forums especially web browsers and IM clients

  • Most vendors are going to tell you to change your passwords anyway but check the details as above
  • Making your password really long is good practise but is no deterrent whatsoever from Heartbleed and you run the obvious risk of forgetting it or revealing it to hackers waiting for all the password resets

Imagine a hacker did target Vendor X, based on watching the charts of companies requesting new certificates and targeting those who haven't yet. Let us presume they were running Operating System X (all we know is that NGINX probably isn't vulnerable and Apache potentially is - but it would require specific timing) and just as a server rebooted the private key was added to the top of the OpenSSL memory stack and at that precise moment a hacker somehow managed to make a first request with an OpenSSL heartbeat and steal the private key. If we imagine that Vendor X are rebooting their servers regularly and maybe there was an insider involved then it becomes all the more probable. Let us now imagine the servers have been upgraded to OpenSSL 1.0.1g and all the services restarted but that the old certificates are still up there. That means if you reset your passwords then it makes no difference whatsoever because the hacker can decrypt all the traffic using their stolen private key. Changing your password actually means that the hacker now has your new password and you think you are actually safe. The hacker may have already decrypted everything on the site using their private key and have all your confidential information but let's assume they haven't. Vendor X then issue new certificates and does not bother going back through the last two years of logs to look for Heartbleed attacks. You have absolutely no idea that the hacker stole your new password and you carry on using the service and update it with your new credit card details...you are completely surprised that your account has been hacked even though Vendor X patched their servers.

That said, I would actually be more worried by the news that the majority of the traffic performing heartbeat vulnerability scans is apparently coming from various Government (thankfully not ours) sponsored cybercrime activity around the world.

I would like to end by thanking all the Blogs that I have referenced in bringing together this hopefully definitive guide to Heartbleed. I am happy to hear your views on the matter so please feel free to email me.

Peter

************************************************************************

Kevin Benedict Senior Analyst, Digital Transformation, EBA, Center for the Future of Work Cognizant View my profile on LinkedIn Learn about mobile strategies at MobileEnterpriseStrategies.com Follow me on Twitter @krbenedict Browse the Mobile Solution Directory Join the Linkedin Group Strategic Enterprise Mobility Join the Google+ Community Mobile Enterprise Strategies Recommended Strategy Book Code Halos Recommended iPad App Code Halos for iPads

***Full Disclosure: These are my personal opinions. No company is silly enough to claim them. I am a mobility and digital transformation analyst, consultant and writer. I work with and have worked with many of the companies mentioned in my articles.

More Stories By Kevin Benedict

Kevin Benedict is an opinionated Senior Analyst at Cognizant's Center for the Future of Work, SAP Mentor Alumnus, speaker, writer, and mobile and digital strategies expert. He is a popular keynote speaker, and in the past three years he has shared his insights into mobile and digital strategies with companies in 17 different countries. He has over 30 years of experience working with enterprise applications, and he is a veteran mobile industry executive. He wrote the Forward to SAP Press' bestselling book on enterprise mobility titled Mobilizing Your Enterprise with SAP, and he has written over 3,000 articles.

@MicroservicesExpo Stories
More and more companies are looking to microservices as an architectural pattern for breaking apart applications into more manageable pieces so that agile teams can deliver new features quicker and more effectively. What this pattern has done more than anything to date is spark organizational transformations, setting the foundation for future application development. In practice, however, there are a number of considerations to make that go beyond simply “build, ship, and run,” which changes ho...
Gartner is now treating algorithms like they are some kind of innovative addition to the modern digital discussion. Presumably the brilliant minds there have some novel insight into algorithms and, yes, the Algorithm Economy that CIOs should sit up and take notice of. Not only are algorithms nothing new, but much of what Gartner is saying about them is obvious. The bigger picture here is that software continues to improve, and enterprises are becoming increasingly software-driven, in part bec...
The Internet of Things is clearly many things: data collection and analytics, wearables, Smart Grids and Smart Cities, the Industrial Internet, and more. Cool platforms like Arduino, Raspberry Pi, Intel's Galileo and Edison, and a diverse world of sensors are making the IoT a great toy box for developers in all these areas. In this Power Panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists discussed what things are the most important, which will have the most profound...
The Internet of Things (IoT) is growing rapidly by extending current technologies, products and networks. By 2020, Cisco estimates there will be 50 billion connected devices. Gartner has forecast revenues of over $300 billion, just to IoT suppliers. Now is the time to figure out how you’ll make money – not just create innovative products. With hundreds of new products and companies jumping into the IoT fray every month, there’s no shortage of innovation. Despite this, McKinsey/VisionMobile data...
NHK, Japan Broadcasting, will feature the upcoming @ThingsExpo Silicon Valley in a special 'Internet of Things' and smart technology documentary that will be filmed on the expo floor between November 3 to 5, 2015, in Santa Clara. NHK is the sole public TV network in Japan equivalent to the BBC in the UK and the largest in Asia with many award-winning science and technology programs. Japanese TV is producing a documentary about IoT and Smart technology and will be covering @ThingsExpo Silicon Val...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Men & Mice, the leading global provider of DNS, DHCP and IP address management overlay solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. The Men & Mice Suite overlay solution is already known for its powerful application in heterogeneous operating environments, enabling enterprises to scale without fuss. Building on a solid range of diverse platform support,...
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place June 7-9, 2016 at Javits Center, New York City and Nov 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with the 18th International @CloudExpo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world and ThingsExpo New York Call for Papers is now open.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Catchpoint Systems, Inc., a provider of innovative web and infrastructure monitoring solutions, has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's DevOps Summit at 18th Cloud Expo New York, which will take place June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Catchpoint is a leading Digital Performance Analytics company that provides unparalleled insight into customer-critical services to help consistently deliver an amazing customer experience. Designed...
@DevOpsSummit taking place June 7-9, 2016 at Javits Center, New York City, and Nov 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with the 18th International @CloudExpo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world.
Cloud Expo, Inc. has announced today that Andi Mann returns to 'DevOps at Cloud Expo 2016' as Conference Chair The @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York. "DevOps is set to be one of the most profound disruptions to hit IT in decades," said Andi Mann. "It is a natural extension of cloud computing, and I have seen both firsthand and in independent research the fantastic results DevOps delivers. So I am excited to help the g...
Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) will feature the upcoming 18th Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo in a New York news documentary about the "New IT for the Future." The documentary will cover how big companies are transmitting or adopting the new IT for the future and will be filmed on the expo floor between June 7-June 9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York. KBS has long been a leader in the development of the broadcasting culture of Korea. As the key public service broadcaster of Korea...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Addteq will exhibit at SYS-CON's @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo New York, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Addteq is one of the top 10 Platinum Atlassian Experts who specialize in DevOps, custom and continuous integration, automation, plugin development, and consulting for midsize and global firms. Addteq firmly believes that automation is essential for successful software releases. Addteq centers its products a...
In the rush to compete in the digital age, a successful digital transformation is essential, but many organizations are setting themselves up for failure. There’s a common misconception that the process is just about technology, but it’s not. It’s about your business. It shouldn’t be treated as an isolated IT project; it should be driven by business needs with the committed involvement of a range of stakeholders.
SYS-CON Events announced today that FalconStor Software® Inc., a 15-year innovator of software-defined storage solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. FalconStor Software®, Inc. (NASDAQ: FALC) is a leading software-defined storage company offering a converged, hardware-agnostic, software-defined storage and data services platform. Its flagship solution FreeStor®, utilizes a horizonta...
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo 2016 in New York and Silicon Valley. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 17th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Column Technologies will exhibit at SYS-CON's @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Established in 1998, Column Technologies is a global technology solutions provider with over 400 employees, headquartered in the United States with offices in Canada, India, and the United Kingdom. Column Technologies provides “Best of Breed” technology solutions that automate the key DevOps principal...
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftLayer, an IBM Company, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. SoftLayer, an IBM Company, provides cloud infrastructure as a service from a growing number of data centers and network points of presence around the world. SoftLayer’s customers range from Web startups to global enterprises.
SYS-CON Events announced today that IBM Cloud Data Services has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. IBM Cloud Data Services offers a portfolio of integrated, best-of-breed cloud data services for developers focused on mobile computing and analytics use cases.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Anexia will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Anexia offers high-quality customized managed hosting solutions for SaaS and IaaS companies. The company was founded in 2006 in Klagenfurt, Austria. Today, it has additional offices in Vienna, Graz, Munich, Cologne and New York City to serve numerous international customers.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Stratoscale, the software company developing the next generation data center operating system, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Stratoscale is revolutionizing the data center with a zero-to-cloud-in-minutes solution. With Stratoscale’s hardware-agnostic, Software Defined Data Center (SDDC) solution to store everything, run anything and scale everywhere...