Click here to close now.

Welcome!

Microservices Expo Authors: Elizabeth White, Carmen Gonzalez, Liz McMillan, Pat Romanski, Jason Bloomberg

Related Topics: @CloudExpo, Java IoT, Microservices Expo, Linux Containers, Open Source Cloud, Ruby-On-Rails

@CloudExpo: Article

Top Six Ruby on Rails Deployment Methods in AWS: Pros & Cons

I’ll examine various deployment choices in detail, walk through a thorough analysis and then provide recommendations

Setting up a deployment process on the cloud means a variety of choices. Most likely you're prepared to make some tradeoffs. But getting a view across these potential tradeoffs can be difficult. Here are six popular deployments and advice for making the best choice for your organization's needs.

Let's assume you want a deployment for a small startup with fewer than 20 developers, each needing to host a web app that's gaining traction and for which rapid growth is expected. Its requirements are as follows:

  • Autoscaling support to handle expected surges in demand
  • Maximizing developer efficiency by automating tedious tasks and improving dev flow
  • Encouraging mature processes for building a stable foundation as the codebase grows
  • Maintaining flexibility and agility to handle hotfixes of a relatively immature codebase
  • Counting on a few sources to fail, because any of them can cause deployment failure - imagine GitHub failing or a required plugin becoming unavailable

Narrowing the focus a bit more, let's assume the codebase is using Ruby on Rails, as is often the case. We'll examine various deployment choices in detail, walk through a thorough analysis and then provide recommendations for anyone that fits our sample client profile.

1. The Plain Vanilla AMI Method
Amazon OpsWorks: This proven deployment is a well-tested Amazon OpsWorks Standard recommendation. Each time a new node comes up fresh, it requires running all Chef recipes. To automate this process, Cloud-init is used to run scripts for handling code and environment updates that occur when running nodes.

Pros: This approach requires no AMI management. The process is straightforward, self-documenting and brings up a clean environment every time. Updates and patches are applied very quickly.

Cons: Bringing up new instances is extremely slow, there are many moving parts, and there's a high risk of failure.

Bottom Line: While this is a clean solution, the frequent-failure rate and amount of time needed for bringup makes the Plain Vanilla AMI impractical for a use case with autoscaling.

2. The Bake-Everything AMI Method
This deployment option is proven to work at Amazon Video and Netflix. It runs all Chef recipes once, fetches the codebase and then bakes and uses the AMI. Each change requires a new AMI and an ASG replacement within the ELB, including code and environment changes.

Keep in mind that the environment and configuration management parts of the deployment still need automation using tools like Chef and Puppet. Lack of automation can otherwise make AMI management a nightmare, as one tends to lose track of how the environment actually looks within the AMI.

Pros: Provides the fastest bringup, requires no installation, and includes the fewest moving parts, so error rates are very low.

Cons: Each code deployment requires baking a new AMI. This requires a lot of effort to ensure that the process is as fast as possible in order to avoid developer bottlenecks. This setup also makes it harder to deploy hotfixes.

Bottom Line: This is generally a best practice, but requires a certain level of codebase maturity and a high level of infrastructure sophistication. For example, Netflix has spent a lot of time speeding up the process of baking AMIs by using their Aminator project.

3. A Hybrid Method Using Chef to Handle Complete Deployment
This method strikes a balance between the Plain Vanilla AMI and the Bake-Everything AMI. An AMI is baked using Chef for configuration and environment, but one can't check the codebase or deploy the app. Chef does those once the node is brought up.

Pros: Since all packages are pre-installed, this method is significantly faster than using a Plain Vanilla AMI. Also, since the code is pulled once a node is commissioned, the ability to provide hotfixes is improved.

Cons: Because we're relying on Chef in production, there's a dependency on the repository, and pulling from the repository may fail.

Bottom Line: We consider this to be a medium-risk implementation due to its reliance on Chef.

4. A Hybrid Method Using Capistrano to Handle Code Deployment
This is similar to the hybrid Chef deployment approach, but with code deployed through Capistrano. Capistrano is a mature platform for deploying Rails code that includes several features and fail-safe mechanisms that make it better than Chef. In particular, if pull from the repository fails, Capistrano deploys an older revision from its backups.

Pros: The same as for the Chef hybrid, except that Capistrano is more mature than Chef, especially in handling repository failures.

Cons: It requires two tools instead of one, which increases management overhead even though they're tied together. In addition, the gap between environment and code is wider, and managing the tools separately is difficult.

Bottom Line: Capistrano is a better Rails solution for code deployment than Chef, and the ability to apply fixes quickly may make it the best solution.

5. The AMI-Bake and CRON-Based Chef-Client Method
This deployment method resembles that of the hybrids. However, it provisions features allow auto-propagation of changes because each AMI runs chef-client every N minutes. New AMIs are baked only for major changes. It can provide continuous deployment, but continuous deployment is an aggressive tactic that requires excellent continuous integration on the back end.

Pros: Allows continuous code deployment.

Cons: It's prone to errors if Continuous Integration is not stable. In addition, Chef re-bootstraps aren't reliable and may fail.

Bottom Line: Not recommended unless CI is solid.

6. The Cloud-Init and Docker Method
All indications are that Docker is the best choice for this use case. It comes closer to a bake-everything solution while getting around bake-everything's biggest drawbacks. It allows AMIs to be baked once and rarely changes after that. Both the environment and the app code are contained inside an LXC container, with each AMI consisting of one container. Upon code deployment, a new container is simply pushed, which provides deployment-process flexibility.

Pros: Docker containers provide a history with which one can compare containers, helps with issues of undocumented steps in image creation. Code and environment are tied together. The repository structure of containers leads to faster deployment than does which baking a new AMI. Docker also helps to create a local environment similar to the production environment.

Cons: Docker is still in early phases of development and suffers from some growing pains, including a few bugs, a limited tools ecosystem, some app compatibility issues and a limited feature set.

Bottom Line: If you adopt this approach, you'll be doing considerable trailblazing. There's little information available, so comparing notes with other pioneers will be helpful.

Conclusion
While there are many options for deploying Ruby on Rails in AWS environments, there isn't a single best solution. Taking the time to review the options and tradeoffs can save headaches along the way. Talk to peers and experienced consultants about their experiences before making the final decisions.

What are your comments in regard to using these deployments?

More Stories By Ali Hussain

Ali Hussain is CTO & Co-Founder of Flux7 Labs. He has been designing scalable and distributed systems for the last decade and is an AWS Certified Solutions Architect, Associate Level, earning this recognition with a score of 95%.

He began his career at Intel as part of the performance modeling team for Intel’s Atom microprocessor where he focused on benchmarking, power usage and workload optimization. Ali spent four years focused on performance modeling at ARM, Inc. At ARM he optimized the latency and throughput characteristics of systems, modeled performance, and brought a data-driven methodology to performance analyses. Ali acquired his passion for distributed systems while earning his MS at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His Bachelor of Science (High Honors) in Computer Engineering was obtained from the University of Texas at Austin.

His current interests in Flux7 are in Enterprise Migration and configuration management

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@MicroservicesExpo Stories
SYS-CON Events announced today that Harbinger Systems will exhibit at SYS-CON's 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Harbinger Systems is a global company providing software technology services. Since 1990, Harbinger has developed a strong customer base worldwide. Its customers include software product companies ranging from hi-tech start-ups in Silicon Valley to leading product companies in the US a...
SYS-CON Events announced today that ProfitBricks, the provider of painless cloud infrastructure, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. ProfitBricks is the IaaS provider that offers a painless cloud experience for all IT users, with no learning curve. ProfitBricks boasts flexible cloud servers and networking, an integrated Data Center Designer tool for visual control over the...
The 4th International Internet of @ThingsExpo, co-located with the 17th International Cloud Expo - to be held November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA - announces that its Call for Papers is open. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the biggest idea since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than
"We got started as search consultants. On the services side of the business we have help organizations save time and save money when they hit issues that everyone more or less hits when their data grows," noted Otis Gospodnetić, Founder of Sematext, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @DevOpsSummit, held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City.
Enterprises are turning to the hybrid cloud to drive greater scalability and cost-effectiveness. But enterprises should beware as the definition of “policy” varies wildly. Some say it’s the ability to control the resources apps’ use or where the apps run. Others view policy as governing the permissions and delivering security. Policy is all of that and more. In his session at 16th Cloud Expo, Derek Collison, founder and CEO of Apcera, explained what policy is, he showed how policy should be arch...
17th Cloud Expo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Meanwhile, 94% of enterprises ar...
Microservices are individual units of executable code that work within a limited framework. They are extremely useful when placed within an architecture of numerous microservices. On June 24th, 2015 I attended a webinar titled “How to Share Share-Nothing Microservices,” hosted by Jason Bloomberg, the President of Intellyx, and Scott Edwards, Director Product Marketing for Service Virtualization at CA Technologies. The webinar explained how to use microservices to your advantage in order to deliv...
Software is eating the world. The more it eats, the bigger the mountain of data and wealth of valuable insights to digest and act on. Forward facing customer-centric IT organizations, leaders and professionals are looking to answer questions like how much revenue was lost today from platinum users not converting because they experienced poor mobile app performance. This requires a single, real-time pane of glass for end-to-end analytics covering business, customer, and IT operational data.
In the midst of the widespread popularity and adoption of cloud computing, it seems like everything is being offered “as a Service” these days: Infrastructure? Check. Platform? You bet. Software? Absolutely. Toaster? It’s only a matter of time. With service providers positioning vastly differing offerings under a generic “cloud” umbrella, it’s all too easy to get confused about what’s actually being offered. In his session at 16th Cloud Expo, Kevin Hazard, Director of Digital Content for SoftL...
Countless business models have spawned from the IaaS industry. Resell Web hosting, blogs, public cloud, and on and on. With the overwhelming amount of tools available to us, it's sometimes easy to overlook that many of them are just new skins of resources we've had for a long time. In his General Session at 16th Cloud Expo, Phil Jackson, Lead Technology Evangelist at SoftLayer, broke down what we've got to work with and discuss the benefits and pitfalls to discover how we can best use them to d...
Discussions about cloud computing are evolving into discussions about enterprise IT in general. As enterprises increasingly migrate toward their own unique clouds, new issues such as the use of containers and microservices emerge to keep things interesting. In this Power Panel at 16th Cloud Expo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists addressed the state of cloud computing today, and what enterprise IT professionals need to know about how the latest topics and trends affect t...
Public Cloud IaaS started its life in the developer and startup communities and has grown rapidly to a $20B+ industry, but it still pales in comparison to how much is spent worldwide on IT: $3.6 trillion. In fact, there are 8.6 million data centers worldwide, the reality is many small and medium sized business have server closets and colocation footprints filled with servers and storage gear. While on-premise environment virtualization may have peaked at 75%, the Public Cloud has lagged in adop...
DevOps Summit, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 17th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The widespread success of cloud computing is driving the DevOps revolution in enterprise IT. Now as never before, development teams must communicate and collaborate in a dynamic, 24/7/365 environment. There is no time to wait for long development...
Agile, which started in the development organization, has gradually expanded into other areas downstream - namely IT and Operations. Teams – then teams of teams – have streamlined processes, improved feedback loops and driven a much faster pace into IT departments which have had profound effects on the entire organization. In his session at DevOps Summit, Anders Wallgren, Chief Technology Officer of Electric Cloud, will discuss how DevOps and Continuous Delivery have emerged to help connect dev...
One of the hottest new terms in the world of enterprise computing is the microservice. Starting with the seminal 2014 article by James Lewis and Martin Fowler of ThoughtWorks, microservices have taken on a life of their own – and as with any other overhyped term, they have generated their fair share of confusion as well. Perhaps the best definition of microservices comes from Janakiram MSV, Principal at Janakiram & Associates. “Microservices are fine-grained units of execution. They are designe...
In their general session at 16th Cloud Expo, Michael Piccininni, Global Account Manager - Cloud SP at EMC Corporation, and Mike Dietze, Regional Director at Windstream Hosted Solutions, reviewed next generation cloud services, including the Windstream-EMC Tier Storage solutions, and discussed how to increase efficiencies, improve service delivery and enhance corporate cloud solution development. Michael Piccininni is Global Account Manager – Cloud SP at EMC Corporation. He has been engaged in t...
In the last blog we started the conversation on our findings from @Cloud Expo 2015 and @ThingsExpo 2015 as the industry came together to explore the impact of Cloud and Internet of Things (IoT) on business models as we know them. While often the focus of IoT are consumer services and the sometimes over-simplification of what constitutes an IoT company or service, one area there is no disputing is the significant advancement in the Industrial Internet (a term made popular by GE). Ongoing improvem...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Alert Logic, the leading provider of Security-as-a-Service solutions for the cloud, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 17th International Cloud Expo® and DevOps Summit 2015 Silicon Valley, which will take place November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Alert Logic provides Security-as-a-Service for on-premises, cloud, and hybrid IT infrastructures, delivering deep security insight and continuous protection for cust...
One of the charter responsibilities of DevOps (because it's a charter responsibility of ops) is measuring and monitoring applications once they're in production. That means both performance and availability. Which means a lot more than folks might initially think because generally speaking what you measure and monitor is a bit different depending on whether you're looking at performance or availability*.
The cloud has transformed how we think about software quality. Instead of preventing failures, we must focus on automatic recovery from failure. In other words, resilience trumps traditional quality measures. Continuous delivery models further squeeze traditional notions of quality. Remember the venerable project management Iron Triangle? Among time, scope, and cost, you can only fix two or quality will suffer. Only in today's DevOps world, continuous testing, integration, and deployment upend...