|By Gene Dragotta and Sachin Agarwal||
|January 13, 2014 01:15 PM EST||
Slide Deck from Gene Dragotta and Sachin Agarwal's Cloud Expo Presentation: A Peek into the Future of Mobile-Enabled Health Care
While unprecedented technological advances have been made in healthcare in areas such as genomics, digital imaging and Health Information Systems, access to this information has not been easy for both the healthcare provider and the patient themselves. Regulatory compliance and controls, information lock-in in proprietary Electronic Health Record systems and security concerns have made it difficult to share data across health care providers.
The opportunities inherent in mobile technology are dramatically changing the way healthcare business gets done. Healthcare provider professionals are adopting mobile devices and tablets as an alternative to desktops/laptops and using mobile applications to augment gaps in existing patient management system capabilities. Developing mobile applications for the healthcare industry has some unique challenges, particularly protecting your backend data services while making them available to mobile application frameworks and SDKs.
Mobile applications utilize messaging patterns similar to the client/server and AJAX patterns, however unlike desktop clients, mobile devices have to minimize client side processing to maximize battery life and also keep network chatter to a basic minimum. This is achieved by using RESTful APIs with machine-readable formats like JSON. The availability, reliability and performance of these API-based services are critical to the successful deployment and operating of your application. Now add some healthcare domain requirements (encryption, security, etc.,) to this environment and there is a lot of work to do in addition to the actual coding of your mobile application. An API management system will simplify exposing and consuming backend healthcare services through a variety of different channels. To successfully implement an API, you will need a tool that will enable simple enforcement of API controls, continuous monitoring capabilities, performance management, and assurance of high availability.
An API management system will typically provide capabilities for creating and registering service as follows:
- Secure API Services
- Manage API Lifecycles
- Mediate and Virtualize Services
- Govern Access to Services
- Integrate Services and their Data
- Support Authentication and Authorization for all APIs and Services, including OAuth, OpenID, SAML, Kerberos, WS-Security, LDAP and XACML
- Support for all Major Security Standards, including WS*and WS-I
The focus of this article is to discuss how a unified API management and SOA governance platform can accelerate your organization's ability to deliver reliable, scalable and secure mobile applications for healthcare providers. First we will begin with the major technical challenges encountered when deploying healthcare-based mobile applications. Then we will discuss API management and governance platform expectations that can help you overcome these challenges such as the following:
- Data Encryption
- Access Control - Role and Application-based Access
- Integration / Orchestration of data from Multiple Provider Systems
- Quality of Service Control
- Usage Analytics / Event Management
Security - Encryption, Authentication and Authorization
A PKI facilitates users, applications and systems to exchange insecure data safely by encrypting it prior to transmission. Unlike traditional cryptography that uses private keys also known as symmetric cryptography, the public key infrastructure utilizes public key cryptography or asymmetric cryptography. This is used to authenticate a user or manage message encryption.
With asymmetrical cryptography, a public and private key are created simultaneously using the same algorithm (such as RSA) by the certificate authority. The private key is given to the requesting party and the public key is made publicly available (embedded within the certificate) in a location that all parties can access. The private key is used to decrypt text that has been encrypted with the public key. The certificate is used to authenticate the user.
Typically a PKI provides:
- A certificate authority (CA) who issues and verifies the digital certificate. A certificate includes the public key or information about the public key
- A registration authority (RA) acts as the verifier for the certificate authority before a digital certificate is issued to a requestor
- Persistent storage of the certificates and keys
- A certificate management system (creation, import, export, revocation, etc.)
In addition to authenticating with a validated digital certificate, using SAML, an SSO token, basic HTTP authentication, an X.509 certificate, an application token or a third-party IAM system are all popular approaches that can be used to securely connect your mobile application to back-end systems and data services residing with the HIE enterprise.
When health provider personnel authenticate themselves on systems that access patient health records; it's likely that different employees will require and qualify for various levels of data access based on their job description. For this reason, a role-based authentication / authorization framework is recommended. For example, the front office personnel may only have a need to see basic information such as patient demographics, insurance and medication information and a nurse might be required to have access to the entire patient's medical record. Having a framework for implementing role-based access will easily help filter and mask patient data attributes from un-authorized use.
Mediation and Service Orchestration
Where are your patient's medical records, how many sources of data needed to be aggregated, transformed and merged to assemble them, what formats of data do these sources of patient record fragments support etc.? Architects and developers typically face these questions when working with multiple systems both internally and externally to assemble a patient's holistic and contiguous health history or continuity of care document (HL7 CCD). Often developer are using integration engines such as Rhapsody, Mirth, etc., to transform HL7 messages, legacy EDI messages, database data, along with other source of patient information into in XML and usually exposed via a SOAP service.
In addition to mediation, service orchestration and the creation of compound services are a common requirement for health care oriented mobile applications. As an example, in order to create a patient's HL7 CCD, patient data usually resides within multiple systems, data service requests (primitives) to these systems will need to be orchestrated to form the resulting CCD dataset. In some cases, data returned from some of the primitive service requests may require some transformation or may be used as input to a subsequent request. Encapsulating and abstracting multiple primitive requests and any associated logic into a single composite service operation will reduce overall mobile application implementation complexity and message traffic between the mobile device and the HIE data center.
Policy-based Governance Controls for API Services
In most cases, we probably want different licenses with different levels of service (and access) to the backend APIs that enable our mobile applications. The levels of service could be measured in throughput, the bandwidth consumed over time, concurrency and availability.
Within the realm of health care you might want to have some specific controls or governance policies regarding the use of the HIE's back-end system services or APIs. Below are some QoS and SLA examples.
- Allow APIs to be called no more than 10 times per minute per device
- Allow devices to consume no more than 100MB per hour
- Prevent devices from outside the trusted country list (user-defined)
- Allow devices with this IP address range x.x.x.x-x.x.x.x to access the service layer
- Prevent Denial-of-Service attacks with quota management and white/blacklisting
- Only allow certain APIs to be called by specific user roles
The back-end services within the HEI should be deployed within an infrastructure that can provide a similar level of API governance.
In order to understand how your HEI back-end service layer is performing and being utilized by its application consumers, the API management platform should provide access to real-time API usage statistics, API status and event and SLA violation monitoring. These analytics can be used for troubleshooting, performance tuning, threat detection and various usage reports.
Most enterprises utilize a dashboard and reporting system that ingests telemetry data from a variety of systems within the enterprise. Data from these systems are combined to create a complete picture of enterprise system activity. Therefore it may become important to have a capability that can export or publish API management system telemetry data to an enterprise activity monitoring system or reporting data warehouse.
Healthcare-focused mobile applications contain complex use cases and have strict operational requirements. Security models, message protocol mediation services, service usage statistic collection, data transformations and service orchestration functions are all features that can easily be added to your mobile application by leveraging and integrating an API management and governance system with your service oriented architecture.
Cultural, regulatory, environmental, political and economic (CREPE) conditions over the past decade are creating cross-industry solution spaces that require processes and technologies from both the Internet of Things (IoT), and Data Management and Analytics (DMA). These solution spaces are evolving into Sensor Analytics Ecosystems (SAE) that represent significant new opportunities for organizations of all types. Public Utilities throughout the world, providing electricity, natural gas and water, are pursuing SmartGrid initiatives that represent one of the more mature examples of SAE. We have spoken with, or attended presentations from, utilities in the United States, South America, Asia and Europe. This session will provide a look at the CREPE drivers for SmartGrids and the solution spaces used by SmartGrids today and planned for the near future. All organizations can learn from SmartGrid’s use of Predictive Maintenance, Demand Prediction, Cloud, Big Data and Customer-facing Dashboards...
Oct. 2, 2014 02:00 AM EDT Reads: 935
The Internet of Things (IoT) is going to require a new way of thinking and of developing software for speed, security and innovation. This requires IT leaders to balance business as usual while anticipating for the next market and technology trends. Cloud provides the right IT asset portfolio to help today’s IT leaders manage the old and prepare for the new. Today the cloud conversation is evolving from private and public to hybrid. This session will provide use cases and insights to reinforce the value of the network in helping organizations to maximize their company’s cloud experience.
Oct. 1, 2014 11:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,133
IoT is still a vague buzzword for many people. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Mike Kavis, Vice President & Principal Cloud Architect at Cloud Technology Partners, will discuss the business value of IoT that goes far beyond the general public's perception that IoT is all about wearables and home consumer services. The presentation will also discuss how IoT is perceived by investors and how venture capitalist access this space. Other topics to discuss are barriers to success, what is new, what is old, and what the future may hold.
Oct. 1, 2014 10:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,785
Whether you're a startup or a 100 year old enterprise, the Internet of Things offers a variety of new capabilities for your business. IoT style solutions can help you get closer your customers, launch new product lines and take over an industry. Some companies are dipping their toes in, but many have already taken the plunge, all while dramatic new capabilities continue to emerge. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Reid Carlberg, Senior Director, Developer Evangelism at salesforce.com, to discuss real-world use cases, patterns and opportunities you can harness today.
Oct. 1, 2014 08:30 PM EDT Reads: 2,180
All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices – computers, smartphones, tablets, and sensors – connected to the Internet by 2020. This number will continue to grow at a rapid pace for the next several decades. With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo in Silicon Valley. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be!
Oct. 1, 2014 05:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,384
Noted IoT expert and researcher Joseph di Paolantonio (pictured below) has joined the @ThingsExpo faculty. Joseph, who describes himself as an “Independent Thinker” from DataArchon, will speak on the topic of “Smart Grids & Managing Big Utilities.” Over his career, Joseph di Paolantonio has worked in the energy, renewables, aerospace, telecommunications, and information technology industries. His expertise is in data analysis, system engineering, Bayesian statistics, data warehouses, business intelligence, data mining, predictive methods, and very large databases (VLDB). Prior to DataArchon, he served as a VP and Principal Analyst with Constellation Group. He is a member of the Boulder (Colo.) Brain Trust, an organization with a mission “to benefit the Business Intelligence and data management industry by providing pro bono exchange of information between vendors and independent analysts on new trends and technologies and to provide vendors with constructive feedback on their of...
Oct. 1, 2014 03:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,034
Software AG helps organizations transform into Digital Enterprises, so they can differentiate from competitors and better engage customers, partners and employees. Using the Software AG Suite, companies can close the gap between business and IT to create digital systems of differentiation that drive front-line agility. We offer four on-ramps to the Digital Enterprise: alignment through collaborative process analysis; transformation through portfolio management; agility through process automation and integration; and visibility through intelligent business operations and big data.
Sep. 30, 2014 10:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,588
There will be 50 billion Internet connected devices by 2020. Today, every manufacturer has a propriety protocol and an app. How do we securely integrate these "things" into our lives and businesses in a way that we can easily control and manage? Even better, how do we integrate these "things" so that they control and manage each other so our lives become more convenient or our businesses become more profitable and/or safe? We have heard that the best interface is no interface. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Chris Matthieu, Co-Founder & CTO at Octoblu, Inc., will discuss how these devices generate enough data to learn our behaviors and simplify/improve our lives. What if we could connect everything to everything? I'm not only talking about connecting things to things but also systems, cloud services, and people. Add in a little machine learning and artificial intelligence and now we have something interesting...
Sep. 29, 2014 06:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,921
Last week, while in San Francisco, I used the Uber app and service four times. All four experiences were great, although one of the drivers stopped for 30 seconds and then left as I was walking up to the car. He must have realized I was a blogger. None the less, the next car was just a minute away and I suffered no pain. In this article, my colleague, Ved Sen, Global Head, Advisory Services Social, Mobile and Sensors at Cognizant shares his experiences and insights.
Sep. 28, 2014 09:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,560
We are reaching the end of the beginning with WebRTC and real systems using this technology have begun to appear. One challenge that faces every WebRTC deployment (in some form or another) is identity management. For example, if you have an existing service – possibly built on a variety of different PaaS/SaaS offerings – and you want to add real-time communications you are faced with a challenge relating to user management, authentication, authorization, and validation. Service providers will want to use their existing identities, but these will have credentials already that are (hopefully) irreversibly encoded. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Peter Dunkley, Technical Director at Acision, will look at how this identity problem can be solved and discuss ways to use existing web identities for real-time communication.
Sep. 27, 2014 11:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,941
Can call centers hang up the phones for good? Intuitive Solutions did. WebRTC enabled this contact center provider to eliminate antiquated telephony and desktop phone infrastructure with a pure web-based solution, allowing them to expand beyond brick-and-mortar confines to a home-based agent model. It also ensured scalability and better service for customers, including MUY! Companies, one of the country's largest franchise restaurant companies with 232 Pizza Hut locations. This is one example of WebRTC adoption today, but the potential is limitless when powered by IoT. Attendees will learn real-world benefits of WebRTC and explore future possibilities, as WebRTC and IoT intersect to improve customer service.
Sep. 27, 2014 10:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,852
From telemedicine to smart cars, digital homes and industrial monitoring, the explosive growth of IoT has created exciting new business opportunities for real time calls and messaging. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Ivelin Ivanov, CEO and Co-Founder of Telestax, will share some of the new revenue sources that IoT created for Restcomm – the open source telephony platform from Telestax. Ivelin Ivanov is a technology entrepreneur who founded Mobicents, an Open Source VoIP Platform, to help create, deploy, and manage applications integrating voice, video and data. He is the co-founder of TeleStax, an Open Source Cloud Communications company that helps the shift from legacy IN/SS7 telco networks to IP-based cloud comms. An early investor in multiple start-ups, he still finds time to code for his companies and contribute to open source projects.
Sep. 27, 2014 10:30 PM EDT Reads: 2,317
The Internet of Things (IoT) promises to create new business models as significant as those that were inspired by the Internet and the smartphone 20 and 10 years ago. What business, social and practical implications will this phenomenon bring? That's the subject of "Monetizing the Internet of Things: Perspectives from the Front Lines," an e-book released today and available free of charge from Aria Systems, the leading innovator in recurring revenue management.
Sep. 27, 2014 09:45 PM EDT Reads: 2,537
The Internet of Things will put IT to its ultimate test by creating infinite new opportunities to digitize products and services, generate and analyze new data to improve customer satisfaction, and discover new ways to gain a competitive advantage across nearly every industry. In order to help corporate business units to capitalize on the rapidly evolving IoT opportunities, IT must stand up to a new set of challenges.
Sep. 27, 2014 08:45 PM EDT Reads: 2,410
There’s Big Data, then there’s really Big Data from the Internet of Things. IoT is evolving to include many data possibilities like new types of event, log and network data. The volumes are enormous, generating tens of billions of logs per day, which raise data challenges. Early IoT deployments are relying heavily on both the cloud and managed service providers to navigate these challenges. In her session at 6th Big Data Expo®, Hannah Smalltree, Director at Treasure Data, to discuss how IoT, Big Data and deployments are processing massive data volumes from wearables, utilities and other machines.
Sep. 27, 2014 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,081
P2P RTC will impact the landscape of communications, shifting from traditional telephony style communications models to OTT (Over-The-Top) cloud assisted & PaaS (Platform as a Service) communication services. The P2P shift will impact many areas of our lives, from mobile communication, human interactive web services, RTC and telephony infrastructure, user federation, security and privacy implications, business costs, and scalability. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Erik Lagerway, Co-founder of Hookflash, will walk through the shifting landscape of traditional telephone and voice services to the modern P2P RTC era of OTT cloud assisted services.
Sep. 26, 2014 11:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,604
While great strides have been made relative to the video aspects of remote collaboration, audio technology has basically stagnated. Typically all audio is mixed to a single monaural stream and emanates from a single point, such as a speakerphone or a speaker associated with a video monitor. This leads to confusion and lack of understanding among participants especially regarding who is actually speaking. Spatial teleconferencing introduces the concept of acoustic spatial separation between conference participants in three dimensional space. This has been shown to significantly improve comprehension and conference efficiency.
Sep. 26, 2014 10:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,522
The Internet of Things is tied together with a thin strand that is known as time. Coincidentally, at the core of nearly all data analytics is a timestamp. When working with time series data there are a few core principles that everyone should consider, especially across datasets where time is the common boundary. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Jim Scott, Director of Enterprise Strategy & Architecture at MapR Technologies, will discuss single-value, geo-spatial, and log time series data. By focusing on enterprise applications and the data center, he will use OpenTSDB as an example to explain some of these concepts including when to use different storage models.
Sep. 26, 2014 07:45 PM EDT Reads: 2,337
SYS-CON Events announced today that Gridstore™, the leader in software-defined storage (SDS) purpose-built for Windows Servers and Hyper-V, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 15th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Gridstore™ is the leader in software-defined storage purpose built for virtualization that is designed to accelerate applications in virtualized environments. Using its patented Server-Side Virtual Controller™ Technology (SVCT) to eliminate the I/O blender effect and accelerate applications Gridstore delivers vmOptimized™ Storage that self-optimizes to each application or VM across both virtual and physical environments. Leveraging a grid architecture, Gridstore delivers the first end-to-end storage QoS to ensure the most important App or VM performance is never compromised. The storage grid, that uses Gridstore’s performance optimized nodes or capacity optimized nodes, starts with as few a...
Sep. 26, 2014 06:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,717
The Transparent Cloud-computing Consortium (abbreviation: T-Cloud Consortium) will conduct research activities into changes in the computing model as a result of collaboration between "device" and "cloud" and the creation of new value and markets through organic data processing High speed and high quality networks, and dramatic improvements in computer processing capabilities, have greatly changed the nature of applications and made the storing and processing of data on the network commonplace. These technological reforms have not only changed computers and smartphones, but are also changing the data processing model for all information devices. In particular, in the area known as M2M (Machine-To-Machine), there are great expectations that information with a new type of value can be produced using a variety of devices and sensors saving/sharing data via the network and through large-scale cloud-type data processing. This consortium believes that attaching a huge number of devic...
Sep. 26, 2014 06:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,632