Welcome!

Microservices Expo Authors: Elizabeth White, Pat Romanski, Reinhard Brandstädter, Liz McMillan, Cynthia Dunlop

Related Topics: @CloudExpo, Microservices Expo, Agile Computing, Cloud Security, @BigDataExpo, SDN Journal

@CloudExpo: Article

Basic Cloud Computing Patterns for Application Development

Design patterns help not only in the development process but across the application development life cycle

Over the past few years, the cloud evolution has answered all questions on the cloud being the right strategy. The key challenge that remains now is leveraging cloud capabilities and features in such a way that they can be used to innovate as well as solve business problems. If we relate different cloud migration strategies executed over time, we'll find many similarities. There has been focus on cloud assessment as well as a consideration for application development approaches. Even though business cases are different, we can still link the proposed or implemented cloud-based solutions with a set of design patterns. If we have to define a design pattern, the most common definition states it as, ‘A widely used concept in computer science to describe good solutions to re-occurring problems in an abstract form.' Any abstract solution to recurring problems in the domain of cloud computing can be referred to as a cloud computing pattern that is independent of concrete providers, products and programming languages.

The following are some basic application architecture patterns. Most of these were referred to as cloud best practices in the beginning. As we come across multiple real-time implementations, we shall be able to easily identify a pattern in them.

Composite Application
On a higher level, traditional application architecture has to deal with challenges such as difficulties integrating with other applications and lack of flexibility for supporting changing functionalities in an application lifecycle. Since in a cloud environment applications can be scaled individually, it's always a good option to divide the application functionality into multiple components that can later be integrated to form a unified application.

Composite applications are one of the main elements in service-oriented architecture (SOA) that help in contextual collaboration. This approach makes applications extendable right from the beginning. The integration of other applications is also simplified by using the same integration techniques inside individual applications.

Example of a Composite Application for a Travel Booking Process

The key to a successful implementation of this pattern is achieving the correct balance in the distribution of functionality across multiple components. With too few components, integrating new functionality and changing the application flexibly will need extra time due to likelihood of errors. On the other hand, if the functionality is distributed among too many components, there will be a higher communication overhead for the application to perform. Composite application patterns used along with loose coupling (explained earlier) helps extract the benefits of cloud features like elasticity, payment models and standardized management.

Loose Coupling
In essence, loose coupling isolates the various layers and components of your application so that each component interacts asynchronously with the others and treats them as a "black box." The key principal for this pattern is to reduce the set of assumptions for the information exchange between components, which eventually results in better scalability.

Decoupling your components, building asynchronous systems and scaling horizontally become very important in the context of the cloud. It will not only allow you to scale out by adding more instances of the same component but also allow you to design innovative hybrid models in which a few components continue to run ‘on-premise' while the other components can take advantage of the ‘cloud-scale' and use the cloud for additional compute-power and bandwidth.

The following is a sample illustration of decoupling components using queues and AWS specific tactics:

Ref: Whitepaper on Architecting for the AWS Cloud: Best Practices.

AWS specific techniques for implementing this best practice are as follows:

  1. Use Amazon SQS to isolate components
  2. Use Amazon SQS as a buffer between components
  3. Design every component in a way that it exposes a service interface and is responsible for its own scalability in all appropriate dimensions and interacts with other components asynchronously
  4. Bundle the logical construct of a component into an Amazon Machine Image so that it can be deployed more often
  5. Make your applications as stateless as possible. Store session state outside of component (in Amazon SimpleDB, if appropriate)

Loose coupling normally results in performance reduction because asynchronous communication using messages adds a lot of overhead due to the communication path being longer. Though it needs to be weighed between loose coupling and performance, things can be easily handled by scaling resources out.

Elastic Component
As an application is componentized, components are distributed among multiple compute nodes. The system utilization is tracked by these nodes using parameters like CPU load, memory usage, or network I/O for scaling decisions. As the utilization of compute nodes exceeds a specified threshold, additional hosting components are provisioned that contain the same application component.

In cloud, elasticity can be implemented in three ways:

  1. Proactive Cyclic Scaling: Periodic scaling that occurs at fixed interval
  2. Proactive Event-Based Scaling: Scaling just when you are expecting a big surge of traffic requests due to a scheduled business event
  3. Auto-scaling based on demand

Other Cloud Computing Patterns
The following are some other commonly used cloud computing patterns:

Stateless Component
In regular component-based applications in cloud, the chances of failure increase as components can be distributed across multiple nodes. Components are added/ removed to address scalability needs with changes in demand. ‘Stateless Components' is a pattern in which components do not contain any internal state, rather external persistence storage is used for state management.

Map-Reduce
The Map-Reduce pattern is used to achieve performance requirements for complex queries on large data sets as most of the conventional storage solutions do not support such queries natively. Map-Reduce is often used to query large amounts of weakly structured/unstructured data for analysis purposes. For example, it can be used for the analysis of web service logs to determine user access statistics or the analysis of order information to find popular products.

Design patterns help not only in the development process but across the application development life cycle. In their abstracted form, patterns make themselves applicable to challenges that the developers of cloud application face today that are independent of the actual technologies as well as cloud services that are being used. Applying them to the cloud lets your application extract maximum benefits of cloud platforms.

More Stories By Mahesh Kumar

Mahesh Kumar is currently working as a Senior Tech Lead at Harbinger. He is a member of Technology Forum and Proposal Engineering Group at Harbinger Systems. He is an active contributor in the technology arm of Harbinger’s Marketing division. Mahesh Kumar has over 7 years of experience in design and development of Enterprise Applications in BI, Healthcare and eLearning domain. His core technology expertise is in Java, J2ee, Java Frameworks and libraries, Android, Big Data and Cloud. He is frequently invited as a guest speaker at Management Colleges and Universities.

Mahesh Kumar holds a Bachelors of Engineering in Information Technology from University of Pune, India.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@MicroservicesExpo Stories
A strange thing is happening along the way to the Internet of Things, namely far too many devices to work with and manage. It has become clear that we'll need much higher efficiency user experiences that can allow us to more easily and scalably work with the thousands of devices that will soon be in each of our lives. Enter the conversational interface revolution, combining bots we can literally talk with, gesture to, and even direct with our thoughts, with embedded artificial intelligence, wh...
IoT generates lots of temporal data. But how do you unlock its value? How do you coordinate the diverse moving parts that must come together when developing your IoT product? What are the key challenges addressed by Data as a Service? How does cloud computing underlie and connect the notions of Digital and DevOps What is the impact of the API economy? What is the business imperative for Cognitive Computing? Get all these questions and hundreds more like them answered at the 18th Cloud Expo...
Cloud-based NCLC (No-code/low code) application builder platforms empower everyone in the organization to quickly build applications and executable processes that broaden access, deepen collaboration, and enhance transparency for all team members. Line of business owners (LOBO) and operations managers know best their part of the business and their processes. IT departments are beginning to leverage NCLC platforms to empower and enable LOBOs to lead the innovation, transform the organization, an...
@DevOpsSummit taking place June 7-9, 2016 at Javits Center, New York City, and Nov 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with the 18th International @CloudExpo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world.
SYS-CON Events announced today the Docker Meets Kubernetes – Intro into the Kubernetes World, being held June 9, 2016, in conjunction with 18th Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo, at the Javits Center in New York, NY. Register for 'Docker Meets Kubernetes Workshop' Here! This workshop led by Sebastian Scheele, co-founder of Loodse, introduces participants to Kubernetes (container orchestration). Through a combination of instructor-led presentations, demonstrations, and hands-on labs, participants learn ...
Just last week a senior Hybris consultant shared the story of a customer engagement on which he was working. This customer had problems, serious problems. We’re talking about response times far beyond the most liberal acceptable standard. They were unable to solve the issue in their eCommerce platform – specifically Hybris. Although the eCommerce project was delivered by a system integrator / implementation partner, the vendor still gets involved when things go really wrong. After all, the vendo...
The initial debate is over: Any enterprise with a serious commitment to IT is migrating to the cloud. But things are not so simple. There is a complex mix of on-premises, colocated, and public-cloud deployments. In this power panel at 18th Cloud Expo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists will look at the present state of cloud from the C-level view, and how great companies and rock star executives can use cloud computing to meet their most ambitious and disruptive business ...
Agile teams report the lowest rate of measuring non-functional requirements. What does this mean for the evolution of quality in this era of Continuous Everything? To explore how the rise of SDLC acceleration trends such as Agile, DevOps, and Continuous Delivery are impacting software quality, Parasoft conducted a survey about measuring and monitoring non-functional requirements (NFRs). Here's a glimpse at what we discovered and what it means for the evolution of quality in this era of Continuo...
You might already know them from theagileadmin.com, but let me introduce you to two of the leading minds in the Rugged DevOps movement: James Wickett and Ernest Mueller. Both James and Ernest are active leaders in the DevOps space, in addition to helping organize events such as DevOpsDays Austinand LASCON. Our conversation covered a lot of bases from the founding of Rugged DevOps to aligning organizational silos to lessons learned from W. Edwards Demings.
When I talk about driving innovation with self-organizing teams, I emphasize that such self-organization includes expecting the participants to organize their own teams, give themselves their own goals, and determine for themselves how to measure their success. In contrast, the definition of skunkworks points out that members of such teams are “usually specially selected.” Good thing he added the word usually – because specially selecting such teams throws a wrench in the entire works, limiting...
As AT&Ts VP of Domain 2.0 architecture writes one aspect of their Domain 2.0 strategy is a goal to embrace a Microservices Application Architecture. One page 9 they describe how these envisage them fitting into the ECOMP architecture: "The initial steps of the recipes include a homing and placement task using constraints specified in the requests. ‘Homing and Placement' are micro-services involving orchestration, inventory, and controllers responsible for infrastructure, network, and applicati...
Application development and delivery methods have undergone radical changes in recent years to improve scalability and resiliency. Container images are the new build and deployment artifacts that are used to ship and run software. While startups have long been comfortable experimenting with and embracing new technologies, even large enterprises are now re-architecting their software systems so that they can benefit from container-enabled micro services architectures. With the launch of DC/OS, w...
Many banks and financial institutions are experimenting with containers in development environments, but when will they move into production? Containers are seen as the key to achieving the ultimate in information technology flexibility and agility. Containers work on both public and private clouds, and make it easy to build and deploy applications. The challenge for regulated industries is the cost and complexity of container security compliance. VM security compliance is already challenging, ...
Earlier this week, we hosted a Continuous Discussion (#c9d9) on Continuous Delivery (CD) automation and orchestration, featuring expert panelists Dondee Tan, Test Architect at Alaska Air, Taco Bakker, a LEAN Six Sigma black belt focusing on CD, and our own Sam Fell and Anders Wallgren. During this episode, we discussed the differences between CD automation and orchestration, their challenges with setting up CD pipelines and some of the common chokepoints, as well as some best practices and tips...
SYS-CON Events announced today TechTarget has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7–9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. TechTarget is the Web’s leading destination for serious technology buyers researching and making enterprise technology decisions. Its extensive global networ...
Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) will feature the upcoming 18th Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo in a New York news documentary about the "New IT for the Future." The documentary will cover how big companies are transmitting or adopting the new IT for the future and will be filmed on the expo floor between June 7-June 9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York. KBS has long been a leader in the development of the broadcasting culture of Korea. As the key public service broadcaster of Korea...
Automation is a critical component of DevOps and Continuous Delivery. This morning on #c9d9 we discussed CD Automation and how you can apply Automation to accelerate release cycles, improve quality, safety and governance? What is the difference between Automation and Orchestration? Where should you begin your journey to introduce both?
While there has been much ado about interoperability, there are still no real solutions, same as last year and the year before that. The large EHR vendors who continue to dominate the market still maintain that interoperability is all but solved, still can't connect EHRs across the continuum causing frustration by providers and a disservice to patients. The ONC pays lip service to the problem, but that is about it. It is time for the healthcare industry to consider alternatives like middleware w...
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo 2016 in New York and Silicon Valley. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 17th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty ...
Our CTO, Anders Wallgren, recently sat down to take part in the “B2B Nation: IT” podcast — the series dedicated to serving the IT professional community with expert opinions and advice on the world of information technology. Listen to the great conversation, where Anders shares his thoughts on DevOps lessons from large enterprises, the growth of microservices and containers, and more.