Click here to close now.

Welcome!

@MicroservicesE Blog Authors: Liz McMillan, JP Morgenthal, David Sprott, Baruch Sadogursky, Roger Strukhoff

Related Topics: Java IoT, Industrial IoT, @MicroservicesE Blog, IoT User Interface, Recurring Revenue, Cloud Security

Java IoT: Article

Java Cryptography | Part 2

Encryption and Digital Signatures

In today's environment, information security is crucial for everyone. Security needs vary widely from protecting social security numbers to guarding corporate strategy. Information espionage can occur at all levels. A human resources employee or manager takes employee personnel files home to work on them and unfortunately loses them or they get stolen. An employee's notes to a supervisor regarding a case are intercepted and read via monitoring software by an outside hacker. The resulting damages can be costly and could be avoided by protecting assets with encryption technology.

This article demonstrates the implementation of the Cryptography header cited in the previous article and illustrates how to encrypt and digitally sign files using a hybrid combination of asymmetric public/private key encryption and symmetric encryption. A symmetric key is used to encrypt the file and the asymmetric public key encrypts the symmetric key. The asymmetric private key decrypts the symmetric key which in turn is used to decrypt the encrypted file.

Figure 1. Asymmetric Key Encryption Functions

The same pair of encryption keys can be used with digital signatures. The private key is used to sign a file and generate a digital signature. The public key is used to verify the authenticity of the signature. The encrypted symmetric key and digital signature along with additional information are stored in the Cryptography header which is affixed to the front of the encrypted file.

Figure 2. Asymmetric Key Signature Functions

The encryption technique requires the Java libraries developed by the Legion of the Bouncy Castle (www.bouncycastle.org). The Bouncy Castle jars, bcprov-jdk15on-147.jar and bcpkix-jdk15on-147.jar, contain all the methods required to encrypt, decrypt, sign and verify a digital signature. The following Java code snippet loads the BouncyCastle provider, which implements the Java Cryptography Security services such as algorithms and key generation.

import org.bouncycastle.jce.provider.*;
java.security.Security.addProvider(new BouncyCastleProvider());

Generating Public/Private Encryption Keys
A Java key store is a password protected file that contains the user's pair of asymmetric encryption keys and certificate. Each key store associates a unique alias to each pair of encryption keys it contains. The Java key store file name is generated as alias_nnnn.jks, for example, jxdoe_fc99.jks. Certificates hold the public encryption key that allows a file to be encrypted for a specific individual who holds the matching deciphering key. The following steps along with Java code snippets illustrate how to generate the pair of public/private keys and store them in a key store file, using the Bouncy Castle cryptography library.

Figure 3. Pair of Asymmetric Keys

Step 1: Create an instance of the KeyPairGenerator class specifying the RSA asymmetric algorithm and Bouncy Castle provider. Generate a 1024-bit asymmetric public and private key pair to be stored in a password protected key store file.

//-Generate the pair of Asymmetric Encryption Keys (public/private)
KeyPairGenerator tKPGen = KeyPairGenerator.getInstance("RSA", "BC");
SecureRandom tRandom = new SecureRandom();
tKPGen.initialize(1024, tRandom); //-Key size in bits
KeyPair tPair = tKPGen.generateKeyPair();
PublicKey tUserPubKey = tPair.getPublic();
PrivateKey tUserPrivKey = tPair.getPrivate();

Step 2: Extract four hex digits from the public key to create a unique alias for the filename of the certificate and key store.

KeyFactory tKeyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance("RSA");
RSAPublicKeySpec tPubSpec =
tKeyFactory.getKeySpec(tUserPubKey, RSAPublicKeySpec.class);
String t4HexDigits = tPubSpec.getModulus().toString(16).substring(8,12);
String tUniqueAlias = "jxdoe_" + t4HexDigits;

Step 3: Create a certificate to hold the asymmetric public key that can be used to encrypt your confidential information or distributed to others for exchanging encrypted files.

JcaContentSignerBuilder tSignBldr =
new JcaContentSignerBuilder("SHA512WithRSAEncryption");
tSignBldr.setProvider("BC");
ContentSigner tSigGen = tSignBldr.build(tUserPrivKey);
X500NameBuilder tBuilder = new X500NameBuilder(BCStyle.INSTANCE);
tBuilder.addRDN(BCStyle.CN, "John X. Doe"); //-Common name
tBuilder.addRDN(BCStyle.E, "[email protected]"); //-E-mail
tBuilder.addRDN(BCStyle.L, "Detroit"); //-City/Locale
tBuilder.addRDN(BCStyle.ST, "MI"); //-State
org.bouncycastle.asn1.x500.X500Name tX500Name = tBuilder.build();
Calendar tCal = Calendar.getInstance();
tCal.set(2014, 12, 31);
java.util.Date tEnd = tCal.getTime(); //-Ending date for certificate
X509v3CertificateBuilder tV3CertGen = new JcaX509v3CertificateBuilder(
tX500Name,  //-Issuer is same as Subject
BigInteger.valueOf( System.currentTimeMillis()), //-Serial Number
new java.util.Date(), //-Date start
tEnd,     //-Date end
tX500Name,  //-Subject
tUserPubKey); //-Public RSA Key
X509CertificateHolder tCertHolder = tV3CertGen.build(tSigGen);
JcaX509CertificateConverter tConverter =
new JcaX509CertificateConverter().setProvider("BC");
X509Certificate tCert = tConverter.getCertificate(tCertHolder);

Step 4: Save the certificate to disk so that it can be used for encrypting your own personal information or distributing to others.

byte[] tBA = tCert.getEncoded();
File tFile = new File("C:\\" + tUniqueAlias + ".cer");
FileOutputStream tFOS = new FileOutputStream(tFile);
tFOS.write(tBA);
tFOS.close();

Step 5: Insert the certificate into an array of X509 certificates called a chain. Create a password protected key store file to hold the private key and certificate chain and save it to disk. The key store saves the private key and certificate chain as an entry at a unique key called the alias and is password protected as well. The same password will be used to protect the entry and key store.

KeyStore tKStore = KeyStore.getInstance("JKS", "SUN");
tKStore.load(null, null); //-Initialize KeyStore
X509Certificate[] tChain = new X509Certificate[1];
tChain[0] = tCert; //-Put certificate into a chain
tKStore.setKeyEntry(tUniqueAlias,
tUserPrivKey,
"password".toCharArray(),
tChain);
String tKSFileName = "C:\\" + tUniqueAlias + ".jks";
tFOS = new FileOutputStream(tKSFileName);
tKStore.store(tFOS, "password".toCharArray()); //-Set KeyStore password
tFOS.close();

Encryption with Digital Signature
Encryption is used to protect a file from being read by unauthorized eyes by altering its original contents to an indecipherable form. Using a hybrid encryption technique, the file is encrypted with an AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) symmetric key and the key is encrypted using RSA asymmetric encryption. In addition to protecting a file, a digital signature can be added to provide authentication of the originator who sent/encrypted the file. The digital signature is a unique number that is generated using the owner's asymmetric private key and a hash algorithm on the encrypted file contents. The following steps along with Java code snippets illustrate how to encrypt and add a digital signature to a file.

Figure 4: AES Symmetric Key

Step 1: Let's assume you want to encrypt and digitally sign the file, C:\sampleFile.txt. Dynamically generate a symmetric "secret" key using the Java class, KeyGenerator. The symmetric key will be used to encrypt the file. The Java class KeyGenerator is instantiated using the symmetric algorithm, "AES", and provider, BouncyCastle("BC"). The instance of KeyGenerator is initialized with a secure random seed and the maximum key size in bits allowed by your country. The following code illustrates how to generate a symmetric key.

KeyGenerator tKeyGen = KeyGenerator.getInstance("AES", "BC");
SecureRandom tRandom2 = new SecureRandom();
tKeyGen.init(256, tRandom2); //-256 bit AES symmetric key
SecretKey tSymmetricKey = tKeyGen.generateKey();

Step 2: Generate a Cryptography header that stores cryptographic information used to later decrypt the file and verify the digital signature. Save the symmetric algorithm, mode and padding in the header. The following code illustrates the header instantiation and initialization.

CryptoHeader tHead = new CryptoHeader();
tHead.setEncryptFlag(true);
tHead.setSignedFlag(true);
tHead.symKeyAlg(1);   //-AES
tHead.symKeyMode(5);  //-CTR Segmented Integer Counter mode
tHead.symKeyPadding(2); //-PKCS7 Padding
tHead.decryptID(tUniqueAlias); //-Owner's unique alias
tHead.decryptIDLength(tHead.decryptID().length());

Step 3: Load the owner's certificate and extract the public key. You can also load another person's certificate if you are encrypting the file for someone other than yourself. The public key will be used to encrypt the symmetric key.

InputStream tCertIS = new FileInputStream("C:\\" +tUniqueAlias+ ".cer");
CertificateFactory tFactory = CertificateFactory.getInstance("X.509","BC");
X509Certificate tCertificate =
(X509Certificate)tFactory.generateCertificate(tCertIS);
tCertIS.close();
PublicKey tPubKey = tCertificate.getPublicKey();

Step 4: Generate a Java Cipher object and initialize it using the owner's or another person's asymmetric public key extracted from the certificate and set its mode to "Cipher.WRAP_MODE". Use the Java Cipher and public key to encrypt and wrap the symmetric key. Store the wrapped encrypted key in the header and its length.

Cipher tCipherRSA = Cipher.getInstance("RSA", "BC");
tCipherRSA.init(Cipher.WRAP_MODE, (PublicKey)tPubKey);
byte[] tWrappedKey = tCipherRSA.wrap(tSymmetricKey);
tHead.wrappedSymKey(tWrappedKey);
tHead.wrappedSymKeyLength(tWrappedKey.length);

Figure 5. Wrap Symmetric Key

Step 5: Generate an initialization vector if required by the symmetric mode chosen to encrypt the file. AES is a block cipher symmetric algorithm and the Counter (CTR) mode requires an initialization vector. The AES block size is 16 bytes.

int tSize = Cipher.getInstance("AES", "BC").getBlockSize();
byte[] tInitVectorBytes = new byte[tSize];
SecureRandom tRandom3 = new SecureRandom();
tRandom3.nextBytes(tInitVectorBytes);
IvParameterSpec tIVSpec = new IvParameterSpec(tInitVectorBytes);

Figure 6. Initialization Vector

Step 6: Use the previously instantiated Cipher and set its mode to "Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE". Use the public key to encrypt the initialization vector. Store the encrypted vector in the header along with its length.

tCipherRSA.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, (PublicKey)tPubKey);
byte[] tInitVectorEncrypted = tCipherRSA.doFinal(tIVSpec.getIV());
tHead.initVector(tInitVectorEncrypted);
tHead.initVectorLength(tInitVectorEncrypted.length);

Figure 7. Wrap Initialization Vector

Step 7:(Optional) If you are using an enterprise CA hierarchy and encrypting for yourself, use the CA asymmetric public key stored in the key store to wrap the symmetric key and encrypt the initialization vector and store both in the header. If encrypting for another person, use the owner's asymmetric key to wrap the symmetric key and encrypt the initialization vector and store both in the header. You can store the values in the header variables, wrappedSymKeyOther and initVectorOther as well as their lengths. This provides the ability for the CA or owner to decrypt the encrypted file.

Step 8: The private key is stored in a Java key store and is password protected. Load the key store using your password. Retrieve the asymmetric private key from the key store using the same password. The asymmetric private key will be used to generate a digital signature and stored in the header.

FileInputStream tStoreFIS=new FileInputStream("C:\\"+tUniqueAlias+".jks");
KeyStore tMyKStore = KeyStore.getInstance("JKS", "SUN");
char[] tPW = "password".toCharArray();
tMyKStore.load(tStoreFIS, tPW);
PrivateKey tPrivKey = (PrivateKey)tMyKStore.getKey(tUniqueAlias, tPW);

Figure 8. Private Key

Step 9: Generate a Java Signature object specifying the signature algorithm and provider. Initialize the signature engine with the owner's asymmetric private key. The signature engine is bound to the private key so that only the public key can validate it. Store the signature algorithm in the header so that it can be verified later.

Signature tSigEngine =
Signature.getInstance("SHA512WithRSAEncryption", "BC");
tSigEngine.initSign(tPrivKey);
tHead.signatureAlg(12); //-SHA512WithRSAEncryption

Step 10: Generate a Java Cipher object based on the symmetric algorithm, mode, padding and provider which will be used to encrypt the target file. Initialize the Cipher object using the symmetric key and initialization vector and set its mode to "Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE".

Cipher tCipherEncrypt = Cipher.getInstance("AES/CTR/PKCS7Padding", "BC");
tCipherEncrypt.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, tSymmetricKey, tIVSpec);

Step 11: Load the file to be encrypted as a Java "FileInputStream". Encrypt the file to a temporary Java "FileOutputStream" using the Java Cipher, symmetric key and initialization vector and in parallel, sign the encrypted data with the signature engine. The stream is processed a buffer at a time till the end of the file is reached. The end result is an encrypted and digitally signed temporary file.

FileOutputStream tFileOS = new FileOutputStream("C:\\$$$$$$$$.tmp");
InputStream tFileIS = new FileInputStream("C:\\sampleFile.txt");
byte[] tInBuffer = new byte[4096];
byte[] tOutBuffer = new byte[4096];
int tNumOfBytesRead = tFileIS.read(tInBuffer);
while (tNumOfBytesRead == tInBuffer.length) {
//-Encrypt the input buffer data and store in the output buffer
int tNumOfBytesUpdated =
tCipherEncrypt.update(tInBuffer, 0, tInBuffer.length, tOutBuffer);
//-Sign the encrypted data in the output buffer
tSigEngine.update(tOutBuffer, 0, tNumOfBytesUpdated);
tFileOS.write(tOutBuffer, 0, tNumOfBytesUpdated);
tNumOfBytesRead = tFileIS.read(tInBuffer);
}
//-Process the remaining bytes in the input file.
if (tNumOfBytesRead > 0) {
tOutBuffer = tCipherEncrypt.doFinal(tInBuffer, 0, tNumOfBytesRead);
} else {
tOutBuffer = tCipherEncrypt.doFinal();
}
tSigEngine.update(tOutBuffer); //-Sign the remaining bytes
tFileOS.write(tOutBuffer, 0, tOutBuffer.length);
tFileOS.close(); //-Close the temporary file
tFileIS.close(); //-Close input file

Figure 9. Encrypt and Sign the File

The code can be made more efficient by allocating larger buffers and writing out the encrypted data after a threshold has been reached.

Step 12: Generate the digital signature from the signature engine after signing the file and store it in the header along with its length. Save the signature algorithm, signature certificate name and its length in the header.

byte[] tSignature = tSigEngine.sign();
tHead.signature(tSignature);
tHead.signatureLength(tSignature.length);
tHead.verifySigCertName(tUniqueAlias + ".cer");
tHead.verifySigCertNameLength(tHead.verifySigCertName().length());

Step 13: Calculate the total size of the header and save in the header along with its version. Write the header into a ByteArrayOutputStream, which can be converted to a byte array. The Cryptography header class contains a method to write out the header to a ByteArrayOutputStream. Write out the byte array to a file using a Java "FileOutputStream."

ByteArrayOutputStream tHeadBAOS = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
Object tRC = tHead.writeOutHeaderV4(new DataOutputStream(tHeadBAOS));
String tEncryptedFileName = "C:\\sampleFile.txt." + tUniqueAlias + ".asg";
FileOutputStream tFileOStream = new FileOutputStream(tEncryptedFileName);
byte[] tArray = tHeadBAOS.toByteArray();
tFileOStream.write(tArray, 0, tArray.length);

Step 14: Append the temporary "encrypted" file to the output stream. The end result is an encrypted file with a digital signature. Note that the file extension is "ASG" instead of "AES" to imply that it is encrypted and digitally signed. The temporary file though encrypted should be securely deleted afterwards by overwriting it.

tInStream = new FileInputStream("C:\\$$$$$$$$.tmp");
byte[] tBuffer = new byte[4096];
int tLength = tInStream.read(tBuffer);
while (tLength > 0) {
tFileOStream.write(tBuffer, 0, tLength);
tLength = tInStream.read(tBuffer);
}
tFileOStream.close();
tInstream.close();

Summary

This article demonstrates how to encrypt and digitally sign any file using Java Cryptography methods and the Cryptography libraries from Bouncy Castle organization. The Cryptography header provides information required to decipher the file and validate who encrypted its contents. The header also provides the flexibility to expand the usage of Cryptography such as allowing multiple recipients to decrypt a file by using each of their public keys to encrypt the same symmetric key. As society adopts file encryption as a standard way of protection, more creative uses will be invented by future Cyber warriors.

The source code (LaCryptoJarSample.java) is available on the Logical Answers Inc. website under the education web page as an individual file and also within the zip file, laCrypto-4.2.0.zipx.

References and Other Technical Notes
Software requirements:

  • Computer running Windows XP or higher...
  • Java Runtime (JRE V1.7 or higher)

Recommended reading:

  • "Beginning Cryptography with Java" by David Hook.
  • "The Code Book" by Simon Singh

More Stories By James H. Wong

James H. Wong has been involved in the technology field for over 30 years and has dual MS degrees in mathematics and computer science from the University of Michigan. He worked for IBM for almost 10 years designing and implementing software. Founding Logical Answers Corp in 1992, he has provided technical consulting/programming services to clients, providing their business with a competitive edge. With his partner they offer a Java developed suite of “Secure Applications” that protect client’s data using the standard RSA (asymmetric) and AES (symmetric) encryption algorithms.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@MicroservicesExpo Stories
There’s a lot of discussion around managing outages in production via the likes of DevOps principles and the corresponding software development lifecycles that does enable higher quality output from development, however, one cannot lay all blame for “bugs” and failures at the feet of those responsible for coding and development. As developers incorporate features and benefits of these paradigm shift, there is a learning curve and a point of not-knowing-what-is-not-known. Sometimes, the only way ...
Right off the bat, Newman advises that we should "think of microservices as a specific approach for SOA in the same way that XP or Scrum are specific approaches for Agile Software development". These analogies are very interesting because my expectation was that microservices is a pattern. So I might infer that microservices is a set of process techniques as opposed to an architectural approach. Yet in the book, Newman clearly includes some elements of concept model and architecture as well as p...
How can you compare one technology or tool to its competitors? Usually, there is no objective comparison available. So how do you know which is better? Eclipse or IntelliJ IDEA? Java EE or Spring? C# or Java? All you can usually find is a holy war and biased comparisons on vendor sites. But luckily, sometimes, you can find a fair comparison. How does this come to be? By having it co-authored by the stakeholders. The binary repository comparison matrix is one of those rare resources. It is edite...
Container technology is sending shock waves through the world of cloud computing. Heralded as the 'next big thing,' containers provide software owners a consistent way to package their software and dependencies while infrastructure operators benefit from a standard way to deploy and run them. Containers present new challenges for tracking usage due to their dynamic nature. They can also be deployed to bare metal, virtual machines and various cloud platforms. How do software owners track the usag...
Cloud Expo, Inc. has announced today that Andi Mann returns to DevOps Summit 2015 as Conference Chair. The 4th International DevOps Summit will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City. "DevOps is set to be one of the most profound disruptions to hit IT in decades," said Andi Mann. "It is a natural extension of cloud computing, and I have seen both firsthand and in independent research the fantastic results DevOps delivers. So I am excited to help the great team at ...
Enterprises are fast realizing the importance of integrating SaaS/Cloud applications, API and on-premises data and processes, to unleash hidden value. This webinar explores how managers can use a Microservice-centric approach to aggressively tackle the unexpected new integration challenges posed by proliferation of cloud, mobile, social and big data projects. Industry analyst and SOA expert Jason Bloomberg will strip away the hype from microservices, and clearly identify their advantages and d...
SYS-CON Events announced today that MetraTech, now part of Ericsson, has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9–11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York, NY. Ericsson is the driving force behind the Networked Society- a world leader in communications infrastructure, software and services. Some 40% of the world’s mobile traffic runs through networks Ericsson has supplied, serving more than 2.5 billion subscribers.
SYS-CON Events announced today that O'Reilly Media has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9–11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. O'Reilly Media spreads the knowledge of innovators through its books, online services, magazines, and conferences. Since 1978, O'Reilly Media has been a chronicler and catalyst of cutting-edge development, homing in on the technology trends that really matter and spurring their adoption...
Amazon, Google and Facebook are household names in part because of their mastery of Big Data. But what about organizations without billions of dollars to spend on Big Data tools - how can they extract value from their data? In his session at 6th Big Data Expo®, Ali Ghodsi, Co-Founder and Head of Engineering at Databricks, discussed how the zero management cost and scalability of the cloud is addressing the challenges and pain points that data engineers face when working with Big Data. He also s...
The 4th International Internet of @ThingsExpo, co-located with the 17th International Cloud Expo - to be held November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA - announces that its Call for Papers is open. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the biggest idea since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago.
Software development, like manufacturing, is a craft that requires the application of creative approaches to solve problems given a wide range of constraints. However, while engineering design may be craftwork, the production of most designed objects relies on a standardized and automated manufacturing process. By contrast, much of moving an application from prototype to production and, indeed, maintaining the application through its lifecycle has often remained craftwork. In his session at Dev...
The Internet of Things is a misnomer. That implies that everything is on the Internet, and that simply should not be - especially for things that are blurring the line between medical devices that stimulate like a pacemaker and quantified self-sensors like a pedometer or pulse tracker. The mesh of things that we manage must be segmented into zones of trust for sensing data, transmitting data, receiving command and control administrative changes, and peer-to-peer mesh messaging. In his session a...
SYS-CON Events announced today that EnterpriseDB (EDB), the leading worldwide provider of enterprise-class Postgres products and database compatibility solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. EDB is the largest provider of Postgres software and services that provides enterprise-class performance and scalability and the open source freedom to divert budget from more costly traditiona...
I read an insightful article this morning from Bernard Golden on DZone discussing the DevOps conundrum facing many enterprises today – is it better to build your own DevOps tools or go commercial? For Golden, the question arose from his observations at a number of DevOps Days events he has attended, where typically the audience is composed of startup professionals: “I have to say, though, that a typical feature of most presentations is a recitation of the various open source products and compo...
The 5th International DevOps Summit, co-located with 17th International Cloud Expo – being held November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA – announces that its Call for Papers is open. Born out of proven success in agile development, cloud computing, and process automation, DevOps is a macro trend you cannot afford to miss. From showcase success stories from early adopters and web-scale businesses, DevOps is expanding to organizations of all sizes, including the...
Node.js and io.js are increasingly being used to run JavaScript on the server side for many types of applications, such as websites, real-time messaging and controllers for small devices with limited resources. For DevOps it is crucial to monitor the whole application stack and Node.js is rapidly becoming an important part of the stack in many organizations. Sematext has historically had a strong support for monitoring big data applications such as Elastic (aka Elasticsearch), Cassandra, Solr, S...
This is the final installment of the six-part series Microservices and PaaS. It seems like forever since I attended Adrian Cockroft's meetup focusing on microservices. It's actually only been a couple of months, but much has happened since then: countless articles, meetups, and conference sessions focusing on microservices have been delivered, many meetings and design efforts at companies moving towards a microservices-based approach have been endured, and five installments of this blog series ...
Bill Doerrfeld at Nordic APIs has written today about how APIs are evolving the B2B landscape. This is a particularly interesting article for me, because my personal background is working for an EDI provider, where I linked EDI processes from the private network to the Internet, over 15 years ago. Vordel was founded to allow new Web Services APIs to be used for B2B. Axway, a B2B software company, acquired Vordel in 2012 to link B2B with Web APIs. This caused a domino effect, with other API Manag...
There is no question that the cloud is where businesses want to host data. Until recently hypervisor virtualization was the most widely used method in cloud computing. Recently virtual containers have been gaining in popularity, and for good reason. In the debate between virtual machines and containers, the latter have been seen as the new kid on the block – and like other emerging technology have had some initial shortcomings. However, the container space has evolved drastically since coming on...
Python is really a language which has swept the scene in recent years in terms of popularity, elegance, and functionality. Research shows that 8 out 10 computer science departments in the U.S. now teach their introductory courses with Python, surpassing Java. Top-ranked CS departments at MIT and UC Berkeley have switched their introductory courses to Python. And the top three MOOC providers (edX, Coursera, and Udacity) all offer introductory programming courses in Python. Not to mention, Python ...