Welcome!

Microservices Expo Authors: AppDynamics Blog, Pat Romanski, Elizabeth White, Liz McMillan, APM Blog

Related Topics: @CloudExpo, Microservices Expo, Open Source Cloud, Containers Expo Blog, Agile Computing, OpenStack Journal

@CloudExpo: Article

Eucalyptus, CloudStack, OpenStack & OpenNebula: A Tale of Two Cloud Models

About the complementarity of the main open source cloud management platforms

The following table describes the main characteristics of both types of clouds. This is not an exhaustive list, I'm just putting it here to illustrate some of the differences between both philosophies.

Datacenter VirtualizationInfrastructure Provision
Applications Multi-tiered applications defined in a traditional, “enterprise” way “Re-architected” applications to fit into the cloud paradigm
Interfaces Feature-rich API and administration portal Simple cloud APIs and self-service portal
Management Capabilities Complete life-cycle management of virtual and physical resources Simplified life-cycle management of virtual resources with abstraction of underlying infrastructure
Cloud Deployment Mostly private Mostly public
Internal Design Bottom-up design dictated by the management of datacenter complexity Top-down design dictated by the efficient implementation of cloud interfaces
Enterprise Capabilities High availability, fault tolerance, replication, scheduling… provided by the cloud management platform Most of them built into the application, as in “design for failure”
Datacenter Integration Easy to adapt to fit into any existing infrastructure environment to leverage IT investments Built on new, homogeneous commodity infrastructure

This classification of existing cloud models is not new. The "Datacenter Virtualization" and "Infrastructure Provider" cloud models have received different names by different authors: "Enterprise Cloud" and "Next Generation Cloud" by many analysts, "Cloud-in" and "Cloud-out" by Lydia Leong"Enterprise Cloud "and "Open Cloud" by Randy Bias,"Enterprise Cloud" and "Private Cloud" by Simon Wardley"Private Cloud" and "Public Cloud" by Matt Asay, and"Policy-based Clouds" and "Design for fail Clouds" by Massimo Re Ferrè, who also categorized these models as "Design Infrastructure to support Applications" versus "Design Applications that leverage Infrastructures".

Two Different Flavors of Cloud Management Platforms
Existing open-source CMPs can be placed somewhere in between both models. We have created a chart, the CMP Quadrant, aiming to aid corporations to better understand the present and future landscape of the cloud market. One of the dimensions is the "Cloud Model" and the second one represents "Flexibility" in terms of the capabilities of the product to adapt to datacenter services and to be customized to provide a differentiated cloud service. This dimension captures the grade of adaptability of the product, and goes from low to high. Finally, we have placed in the chart the main open-source players in the cloud ecosystem: Eucalyptus, CloudStack, OpenStack and OpenNebula... or at least those tools that are commonly compared to OpenNebula by our users and customers.

Some important clarifications,

  • We are not suggesting that one position (read "tool") in the chart is better than other, only that some of the CMPs are so different that cannot be compared, they are on completely different tracks (read "zones in the Quadrant").
  • The chart does not represent absolute values, the relevant information is in the relative positions of the CMPs with respect to their "Cloud Model" and "Flexibility".
  • The openness of the software is orthogonal to this chart, you can also use it to compare proprietary CMPs.
  • Any CMP can be used to build either public or private clouds, all of the CMPs in the Quadrant implement cloud APIs.
  • And last, but not least, this map is not static, the different CMPs will move right, left, up or down over time, but they cannot be simultaneously in different places. There is not a single perfect solution for every possible scenario.

Comparing vCloud to AWS or comparing vCloud to OpenStack is like comparing apples to oranges as it has been clearly expressed by Massimo Re Ferrè and Boris Renski respectively. Both are fruits but with very different flavor. That being said, it is clear that since all the tools enable infrastructure cloud computing, there is always some overlap in the features that they provide. This overlap tends to be larger for those tools that are closer on the "Cloud Model" axis.

There are fundamental differences in philosophy and target market between OpenNebula and Eucalyptus They are in opposite zones of the Quadrant servicing different needs and implementing completely different philosophies. I would say that they represent the open-source incarnations closer to vCloud and AWS respectively. In the same way many companies compare OpenNebula with OpenStack because both represent flexible solutions that can be adapted to their needs, but wrongly think that both enable the same type of cloud. It is also clear that Eucalyptus and OpenStack meet the same need and so compete for the same type of cloud.

Looking to the Future
In OpenNebula, we do not think that one cloud model will dominate over the other. They may converge at the very long term, but not before 10 years. Consequently, and because a single CMP can not be all things to all people, we will see an open-source cloud space with several offerings focused on different environments and/or industries. This will be the natural evolution, the same happened in other markets. The four open-source CMPs will coexist and, in some cases, work together in a broad open cloud ecosystem.

To a certain extent, this collaboration has started yet. Some of our users have reported experiences using OpenNebula with other cloud platforms:

  • Some corporations are mixing an Enterprise Cloud with an in-house Cloud Service. They are implementing a cloudbursting architecture where an OpenNebula enterprise cloud bursts to an OpenStack- or Eucalyptus-based cloud when the demand for computing capacity spikes.
  • Other corporations are using components from different projects to build their cloud. The integration capabilities of OpenNebula are allowing its integration with OpenStack Swift or OpenStack Quantum for object/block store and networking management respectively in the data center.

We are sure that in the short term we will see some of the open-source CMPs working together, while at the same time finding ways to differentiate themselves in their own cloud markets.

This is a repost of the original post at blog.opennebula.org

More Stories By Ignacio M. Llorente

Dr. Llorente is Director of the OpenNebula Project and CEO & co-founder at C12G Labs. He is an entrepreneur and researcher in the field of cloud and distributed computing, having managed several international projects and initiatives on Cloud Computing, and authored many articles in the leading journals and proceedings books. Dr. Llorente is one of the pioneers and world's leading authorities on Cloud Computing. He has held several appointments as independent expert and consultant for the European Commission and several companies and national governments. He has given many keynotes and invited talks in the main international events in cloud computing, has served on several Groups of Experts on Cloud Computing convened by international organizations, such as the European Commission and the World Economic Forum, and has contributed to several Cloud Computing panels and roadmaps. He founded and co-chaired the Open Grid Forum Working Group on Open Cloud Computing Interface, and has participated in the main European projects in Cloud Computing. Llorente holds a Ph.D in Computer Science (UCM) and an Executive MBA (IE Business School), and is a Full Professor (Catedratico) and the Head of the Distributed Systems Architecture Group at UCM.

@MicroservicesExpo Stories
With the rise of Docker, Kubernetes, and other container technologies, the growth of microservices has skyrocketed among dev teams looking to innovate on a faster release cycle. This has enabled teams to finally realize their DevOps goals to ship and iterate quickly in a continuous delivery model. Why containers are growing in popularity is no surprise — they’re extremely easy to spin up or down, but come with an unforeseen issue. However, without the right foresight, DevOps and IT teams may lo...
The Internet of Things will challenge the status quo of how IT and development organizations operate. Or will it? Certainly the fog layer of IoT requires special insights about data ontology, security and transactional integrity. But the developmental challenges are the same: People, Process and Platform and how we integrate our thinking to solve complicated problems. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Craig Sproule, CEO of Metavine, will demonstrate how to move beyond today's coding paradigm ...
There is little doubt that Big Data solutions will have an increasing role in the Enterprise IT mainstream over time. Big Data at Cloud Expo - to be held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA - has announced its Call for Papers is open. Cloud computing is being adopted in one form or another by 94% of enterprises today. Tens of billions of new devices are being connected to The Internet of Things. And Big Data is driving this bus. An exponential increase is...
The Jevons Paradox suggests that when technological advances increase efficiency of a resource, it results in an overall increase in consumption. Writing on the increased use of coal as a result of technological improvements, 19th-century economist William Stanley Jevons found that these improvements led to the development of new ways to utilize coal. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Mark Thiele, Chief Strategy Officer for Apcera, will compare the Jevons Paradox to modern-day enterprise IT, e...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Tintri Inc., a leading producer of VM-aware storage (VAS) for virtualization and cloud environments, will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Tintri VM-aware storage is the simplest for virtualized applications and cloud. Organizations including GE, Toyota, United Healthcare, NASA and 6 of the Fortune 15 have said “No to LUNs.” With Tintri they mana...
Digitization is driving a fundamental change in society that is transforming the way businesses work with their customers, their supply chains and their people. Digital transformation leverages DevOps best practices, such as Agile Parallel Development, Continuous Delivery and Agile Operations to capitalize on opportunities and create competitive differentiation in the application economy. However, information security has been notably absent from the DevOps movement. Speed doesn’t have to negat...
Your business relies on your applications and your employees to stay in business. Whether you develop apps or manage business critical apps that help fuel your business, what happens when users experience sluggish performance? You and all technical teams across the organization – application, network, operations, among others, as well as, those outside the organization, like ISPs and third-party providers – are called in to solve the problem.
In his general session at 18th Cloud Expo, Lee Atchison, Principal Cloud Architect and Advocate at New Relic, discussed cloud as a ‘better data center’ and how it adds new capacity (faster) and improves application availability (redundancy). The cloud is a ‘Dynamic Tool for Dynamic Apps’ and resource allocation is an integral part of your application architecture, so use only the resources you need and allocate /de-allocate resources on the fly.
SYS-CON Events announced today the Kubernetes and Google Container Engine Workshop, being held November 3, 2016, in conjunction with @DevOpsSummit at 19th Cloud Expo at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. This workshop led by Sebastian Scheele introduces participants to Kubernetes and Google Container Engine (GKE). Through a combination of instructor-led presentations, demonstrations, and hands-on labs, students learn the key concepts and practices for deploying and maintainin...
SYS-CON Events announced today the Enterprise IoT Bootcamp, being held November 1-2, 2016, in conjunction with 19th Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Combined with real-world scenarios and use cases, the Enterprise IoT Bootcamp is not just based on presentations but with hands-on demos and detailed walkthroughs. We will introduce you to a variety of real world use cases prototyped using Arduino, Raspberry Pi, BeagleBone, Spark, and Intel Edison. Y...
As applications are promoted from the development environment to the CI or the QA environment and then into the production environment, it is very common for the configuration settings to be changed as the code is promoted. For example, the settings for the database connection pools are typically lower in development environment than the QA/Load Testing environment. The primary reason for the existence of the configuration setting differences is to enhance application performance. However, occas...
If you’re responsible for an application that depends on the data or functionality of various IoT endpoints – either sensors or devices – your brand reputation depends on the security, reliability, and compliance of its many integrated parts. If your application fails to deliver the expected business results, your customers and partners won't care if that failure stems from the code you developed or from a component that you integrated. What can you do to ensure that the endpoints work as expect...
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with the 19th International Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world and ThingsExpo Silicon Valley Call for Papers is now open.
While DevOps promises a better and tighter integration among an organization’s development and operation teams and transforms an application life cycle into a continual deployment, Chef and Azure together provides a speedy, cost-effective and highly scalable vehicle for realizing the business values of this transformation. In his session at @DevOpsSummit at 19th Cloud Expo, Yung Chou, a Technology Evangelist at Microsoft, will present a unique opportunity to witness how Chef and Azure work tog...
When scaling agile / Scrum, we invariable run into the alignment vs autonomy problem. In short: you cannot have autonomous self directing teams if they have no clue in what direction they should go, or even shorter: Alignment breeds autonomy. But how do we create alignment? and what tools can we use to quickly evaluate if what we want to do is part of the mission or better left out? Niel Nickolaisen created the Purpose Alignment model and I use it with innovation labs in large enterprises to de...
Using new techniques of information modeling, indexing, and processing, new cloud-based systems can support cloud-based workloads previously not possible for high-throughput insurance, banking, and case-based applications. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, John Newton, CTO, Founder and Chairman of Alfresco, described how to scale cloud-based content management repositories to store, manage, and retrieve billions of documents and related information with fast and linear scalability. He addres...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Numerex Corp, a leading provider of managed enterprise solutions enabling the Internet of Things (IoT), will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo | @ThingsExpo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Numerex Corp. (NASDAQ:NMRX) is a leading provider of managed enterprise solutions enabling the Internet of Things (IoT). The Company's solutions produce new revenue streams or create operating...
Analysis of 25,000 applications reveals 6.8% of packages/components used included known defects. Organizations standardizing on components between 2 - 3 years of age can decrease defect rates substantially. Open source and third-party packages/components live at the heart of high velocity software development organizations. Today, an average of 106 packages/components comprise 80 - 90% of a modern application, yet few organizations have visibility into what components are used where.
Throughout history, various leaders have risen up and tried to unify the world by conquest. Fortunately, none of their plans have succeeded. The world goes on just fine with each country ruling itself; no single ruler is necessary. That’s how it is with the container platform ecosystem, as well. There’s no need for one all-powerful, all-encompassing container platform. Think about any other technology sector out there – there are always multiple solutions in every space. The same goes for conta...
Let's recap what we learned from the previous chapters in the series: episode 1 and episode 2. We learned that a good rollback mechanism cannot be designed without having an intimate knowledge of the application architecture, the nature of your components and their dependencies. Now that we know what we have to restore and in which order, the question is how?