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Java: Blog Feed Post

My Final Word (Almost)

As a software developer, I spend most of my time reasoning about code

In "Final Parameters and Local Variables", Dr. Heinz M. Kabutz rants against the generalized used of the final keyword in Java code. For him, this is a "trend' and an "idiotic coding standard".

I'm a firm believer of the complete opposite.

As a software developer, I spend most of my time reasoning about code. Anything that can make this reasoning easier is welcome. Good practices like short methods and descriptive names fall in this category. I believe immutable variables do too.

Immutable variables simplify reasoning because they ensure a stable state within a scope, whether it's a whole class or a single method. Having established invariants is a tremendous help in understanding code.

Whether it is with my own code or not, I've experienced time and again that my mental load was way lower with immutable variables than mutable ones. Maybe it's just a limitation of my own brain power, but, to me, less mental load translates in deeper understanding. And to the contrary, finding out amid-function that one of its argument has been reassigned creates an intense sense of confusion, prompting to re-read the method again. And again.

Of course, this isn't 100% true in Java, mainly because its default data structures are unfortunately mutable. But still, the comfort gained by using the final keyword everywhere, and actually letting your favorite IDE do it for you, far outweighs the small visual clutter it creates.

Unsurprisingly, I'm of the same opinion about early returns and loop breaks, but this is for another debate...

Dr. Kabutz will certainly argue that this is a matter of personal discipline or talent to ensure that one doesn't mess with invariants, because he doesn't "need the compiler to tell [him] this". Again I disagree. I don't trust myself to be on top of things at all time so I want the compiler to tell me everything... and more. I want Findbugs to scrutinize everything I write and break the build if I've been sloppy. I want Checkstyle to reject my code if it isn't compliant to whatever standard is enforced on the project I'm working on.

I do agree on one thing that Dr. Kabutz said though, which is that using the final keyword everywhere in printed books' code snippets is an annoyance. Indeed, books formatting rules constraints on code samples are so stringent (think 71 columns) that the rules of readability are tipped towards "less code as possible".

What is your experience with final variables everywhere? Love, hate or ...

More Stories By David Dossot

David Dossot has worked as a software engineer and architect for more than 14 years. He is a co-author of Mule in Action and is the project despot of the JCR Transport and a member of the Mule Community Committee. He is the project lead of NxBRE, an open source business rules engine for the .NET platform (selected for O'Reilly's Windows Developer Power Tools). He is also a judge for the Jolt Product Excellence Awards and has written several articles for SD Magazine. He holds a Production Systems Engineering Diploma from ESSTIN.

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