Click here to close now.

Welcome!

SOA & WOA Authors: XebiaLabs Blog, Pat Romanski, Max Katz, Elizabeth White, David Sprott

Related Topics: SOA & WOA, Java, Wireless, Web 2.0, Open Web

SOA & WOA: Article

Best Practices for Load Testing Mobile Applications | Part I

The differences between testing traditional web and mobile applications

Mobile applications and mobile websites have become a major channel for conducting business, improving employee efficiency, communicating, and reaching consumers. In the past, mobile played a smaller role in business applications, so performance issues and outages were less of a concern. This is no longer the case. Today, performance problems with mobile applications lead directly to revenue loss, brand damage, and diminished employee productivity. Part I of this article discusses the differences between testing traditional web and mobile applications, specific challenges associated with mobile load testing, mobile testing basics and best practices for recording mobile load test scenarios. In Part II, we will look at how to conduct realistic tests and how to best analyze the results.

Application developers have long understood the need for load testing conventional desktop web applications to ensure that they will behave properly under load with the expected number of users. With the advent of mobile apps and mobile websites the principles of load testing have not changed. There are, however, challenges specific to mobile load testing that must be addressed by your load testing solution.

Since mobile apps and applications for desktop web browsers use the same underlying technologies, the good news is that most load testing tasks and challenges are the same. This means that you don't necessarily need a brand new, mobile-specific load testing tool, but you do need a quality web load testing tool capable of handling the nuances of load testing mobile apps. Using a tool that enables testing of traditional and mobile web applications enables you to leverage existing in-house skills for designing and parameterizing your scripts, running your tests, and analyzing the results.

Aside from the similarities between traditional and mobile load testing, there are three key differences:

  • Simulating network and bandwidth for wireless protocols: With 3G wireless protocols, mobile devices typically connect to the Internet using a slower, lower quality connection than desktops and laptops. This has an effect on response times on the client side and on the server, which you'll need to account for as you define your tests and analyze your results. Additionally, latency and packet loss becomes more of a factor with mobile applications and needs to be considered.
  • Recording on mobile devices: Obviously, mobile apps run on mobile devices, and this can make it difficult to record test scenarios, particularly for secured applications that use HTTPS.
  • Supporting a wide range of devices: The many different kinds of mobile devices on the market have led web application designers to tailor content based on the capabilities of the client's platform. This presents challenges for recording and playing back test scenarios.

Mobile Load Testing Basics
As you may know, a typical automated functional test for a mobile application emulates user actions (including tap, swipe, zoom, and entering text) on a real device or an emulator. The objective of load testing, however, is not to test the functionality of the application for just a single user. Rather, the goal is to see how the server infrastructure performs when handling requests from a large number of users, and to understand how response times are affected by other users interacting with the application.

An effective load test simulates a high volume of simultaneous users accessing your server via your application. Using real devices or emulators for this task is impractical because it demands acquiring, configuring, and synchronizing hundreds or thousands of real devices or machines running emulators.

The solution, of course, is to use a load testing approach that is designed to scale as needed. With a client-based approach, user actions in the browser or the native application are recorded and played back. In contrast, a protocol-based approach involves recording and reproducing the network traffic between the device and the server. To verify performance under large loads, tools that enable protocol-based testing are superior to those that support only client-based testing because they can scale up to millions of users while checking errors and response times for each user.

The basic process for protocol-based mobile load testing is:

  1. Record the network traffic between the device and the server
  2. Replay the network requests for a large number of virtual users
  3. Analyze the results

It appears straightforward, but there are challenges at every step. The good news is that these challenges can be addressed with an effective load testing approach.

Recording Mobile Load Testing Scenarios
To generate a mobile test scenario, you first need to identify the type of mobile application under test. Challenges associated with capturing the data exchanges between a mobile application and the server depend on the design of the application:

  • Native apps - These apps are coded using a programming language (Objective-C for iOS, Java for Android) and API that is specific to the device. As such, they are tied to a mobile platform and are installed from an online store or market.
  • Web apps - Built with web technologies (such as HTML and JavaScript), these applications can be accessed from any mobile browser. More sophisticated web apps may use advanced features like geolocation or web storage for data or include customizations to better match the browser used. Two popular web apps are http://touch.linkedin.com and http://m.gmail.com.
  • Hybrid Apps - A web app embedded in a native app is known as a hybrid app. The native part of the application is limited to a few user interface elements like the menu or navigation buttons, and functions such as automatic login. The main content is displayed in an embedded web browser component. The Facebook application, installed from an online store or a market is a typical sample.

Recording Tests for Native Apps
Because native apps run on your device or within an emulator, to record a test you need to intercept the network traffic coming from the real device or the emulator.

To intercept this traffic, the equipment that records the traffic must be connected to the same network as the device. When the recording computer is on the intranet behind a firewall, it is not possible to record a mobile device connected via a 3G or 4G wireless network. The device and the computer running the recorder must be connected to the same Wi-Fi network.

Most load testing tools provide a proxy based recorder, which is the easiest way to record an application's network traffic. To use this approach, you need to configure the mobile device's Wi-Fi settings so that the traffic goes through the recording proxy. Some mobile operating systems, such as iOS and Android 4, support making this change, but older versions of Android may not. Moreover, some applications connect directly to the server regardless of the proxy settings of the operating system. In either of these cases, you need a tool that provides an alternative to proxy-based recording methods based on network capture or tunneling.

Note: You can use the following simple test to check if the application can be recorded using a proxy. First, configure the proxy settings on the device and record your interactions with any website in a mobile browser. Then, try to record interactions in the native application. If your testing tool successfully records the browser generated traffic, but does not record traffic generated by the native application then you can conclude that the native application is bypassing the proxy settings and that an alternative recording method is required.

Recording Tests for Web Apps and Mobile Version of Websites
Web apps use the same web technologies as modern desktop browsers. As a result, you can record the application or the mobile version of a website from a modern browser on your regular desktop computer, which is an easier and faster alternative to recording from the device.

Many web applications check the browser and platform used to access them. This enables the application, when accessed from a mobile device, to redirect to a mobile version of the content that may contain less text or fewer images. To test such an app from the desktop, you need to modify the requests to make them appear to the server to be coming from a mobile device. Otherwise, you will not be testing the mobile version of the application as the server may redirect to a desktop version. Some browser plugins provide the ability to alter the identity of the browser (by modifying the User-Agent header of requests). Support for this feature is also directly integrated in the recorder of advanced load testing tools.

Modifying the browser's identity is not always enough. You obviously cannot use this approach to transform Internet Explorer 6 into an HTML5 compatible browser. The browser you use on the desktop must be able to parse and render content created for mobile browsers, so it's best to record with a modern browser like Internet Explorer 9, Firefox 5, Chrome 15, or Safari 5 (or a more recent version of any of these if available). If the application includes WebKit specific features, you should use a WebKit based desktop browser, preferably either Chrome or Safari.

Recording Tests for Hybrid Apps
Obviously, tests for native apps cannot be recorded using a desktop browser. However, tests for many hybrid apps can. You may be able to directly access the URL used for the application, for example http://m.facebook.com for the Facebook application, and record your tests as you would for a classic web app.

Recording Tests for Secured Native Applications
There are additional challenges to consider when recording tests for a secured native application, that is, an application that uses HTTPS for the login procedure or any other processing.

By default, all HTTPS recording methods, whether proxy or tunnel based, are seen as man-in-the-middle attacks by the device. This raises a non-blocking alert in a desktop or mobile browser but it leads to an outright connection refusal in native applications, making it impossible to record the secured traffic.

The only way to record tests for secured native applications is to provide a root certificate that authorizes the connection with the proxy or tunnel. While this feature is currently supported by relatively few load testing solutions, it is essential for load testing any native application that relies on HTTPS.

Note: The root certificate must be installed on the device. This operation is simple for iOS devices; you can simply send the certificate via email and open the attachment on the device. For other platforms, including Android, the procedure is not as straightforward and may depend on the version of the operating system and the manufacturer of the device.

Running Realistic Tests
Once you've recorded a test scenario, you need to be parameterize it so that it can emulate users with different identities and behaviors as it is played back to produce a realistic load on the server. This step is required for traditional and mobile web applications, and the tools used to complete it are the same. When playing back the test scenarios, however, there are several challenges specific to mobile load testing and we will discuss this more in Part II of this article on "Best Practices for Load Testing Mobile Applications."

More Stories By Steve Weisfeldt

Steve Weisfeldt is a Senior Performance Engineer at Neotys, a provider of load testing software for Web applications. Previously, he has worked as the President of Engine 1 Consulting, a services firm specializing in all facets of test automation. Prior to his involvement at Engine 1 Consulting, he was a Senior Systems Engineer at Aternity. Prior to that, Steve spent seven years at automated testing vendor Segue Software (acquired by Borland). While spending most of his time at Segue delivering professional services and training, he was also involved in pre-sales and product marketing efforts.

Being in the load and performance testing space since 1999, Steve has been involved in load and performance testing projects of all sizes, in industries that span the retail, financial services, insurance and manufacturing sectors. His expertise lies in enabling organizations to optimize their ability to develop, test and launch high-quality applications efficiently, on-time and on-budget. Steve graduated from the University of Massachusetts-Lowell with a BS in Electrical Engineering and an MS in Computer Engineering.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
The explosion of connected devices / sensors is creating an ever-expanding set of new and valuable data. In parallel the emerging capability of Big Data technologies to store, access, analyze, and react to this data is producing changes in business models under the umbrella of the Internet of Things (IoT). In particular within the Insurance industry, IoT appears positioned to enable deep changes by altering relationships between insurers, distributors, and the insured. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Michael Sick, a Senior Manager and Big Data Architect within Ernst and Young's Financial Servi...
Docker is an excellent platform for organizations interested in running microservices. It offers portability and consistency between development and production environments, quick provisioning times, and a simple way to isolate services. In his session at DevOps Summit at 16th Cloud Expo, Shannon Williams, co-founder of Rancher Labs, will walk through these and other benefits of using Docker to run microservices, and provide an overview of RancherOS, a minimalist distribution of Linux designed expressly to run Docker. He will also discuss Rancher, an orchestration and service discovery platf...
PubNub on Monday has announced that it is partnering with IBM to bring its sophisticated real-time data streaming and messaging capabilities to Bluemix, IBM’s cloud development platform. “Today’s app and connected devices require an always-on connection, but building a secure, scalable solution from the ground up is time consuming, resource intensive, and error-prone,” said Todd Greene, CEO of PubNub. “PubNub enables web, mobile and IoT developers building apps on IBM Bluemix to quickly add scalable realtime functionality with minimal effort and cost.”
Sensor-enabled things are becoming more commonplace, precursors to a larger and more complex framework that most consider the ultimate promise of the IoT: things connecting, interacting, sharing, storing, and over time perhaps learning and predicting based on habits, behaviors, location, preferences, purchases and more. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Tom Wesselman, Director of Communications Ecosystem Architecture at Plantronics, will examine the still nascent IoT as it is coalescing, including what it is today, what it might ultimately be, the role of wearable tech, and technology gaps stil...
Every innovation or invention was originally a daydream. You like to imagine a “what-if” scenario. And with all the attention being paid to the so-called Internet of Things (IoT) you don’t have to stretch the imagination too much to see how this may impact commercial and homeowners insurance. We’re beyond the point of accepting this as a leap of faith. The groundwork is laid. Now it’s just a matter of time. We can thank the inventors of smart thermostats for developing a practical business application that everyone can relate to. Gone are the salad days of smart home apps, the early chalkb...
CommVault has announced that top industry technology visionaries have joined its leadership team. The addition of leaders from companies such as Oracle, SAP, Microsoft, Cisco, PwC and EMC signals the continuation of CommVault Next, the company's business transformation for sales, go-to-market strategies, pricing and packaging and technology innovation. The company also announced that it had realigned its structure to create business units to more directly match how customers evaluate, deploy, operate, and purchase technology.
In the consumer IoT, everything is new, and the IT world of bits and bytes holds sway. But industrial and commercial realms encompass operational technology (OT) that has been around for 25 or 50 years. This grittier, pre-IP, more hands-on world has much to gain from Industrial IoT (IIoT) applications and principles. But adding sensors and wireless connectivity won’t work in environments that demand unwavering reliability and performance. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Ron Sege, CEO of Echelon, will discuss how as enterprise IT embraces other IoT-related technology trends, enterprises with i...
When it comes to the Internet of Things, hooking up will get you only so far. If you want customers to commit, you need to go beyond simply connecting products. You need to use the devices themselves to transform how you engage with every customer and how you manage the entire product lifecycle. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sean Lorenz, Technical Product Manager for Xively at LogMeIn, will show how “product relationship management” can help you leverage your connected devices and the data they generate about customer usage and product performance to deliver extremely compelling and reliabl...
The Internet of Things (IoT) is causing data centers to become radically decentralized and atomized within a new paradigm known as “fog computing.” To support IoT applications, such as connected cars and smart grids, data centers' core functions will be decentralized out to the network's edges and endpoints (aka “fogs”). As this trend takes hold, Big Data analytics platforms will focus on high-volume log analysis (aka “logs”) and rely heavily on cognitive-computing algorithms (aka “cogs”) to make sense of it all.
With several hundred implementations of IoT-enabled solutions in the past 12 months alone, this session will focus on experience over the art of the possible. Many can only imagine the most advanced telematics platform ever deployed, supporting millions of customers, producing tens of thousands events or GBs per trip, and hundreds of TBs per month. With the ability to support a billion sensor events per second, over 30PB of warm data for analytics, and hundreds of PBs for an data analytics archive, in his session at @ThingsExpo, Jim Kaskade, Vice President and General Manager, Big Data & Ana...
One of the biggest impacts of the Internet of Things is and will continue to be on data; specifically data volume, management and usage. Companies are scrambling to adapt to this new and unpredictable data reality with legacy infrastructure that cannot handle the speed and volume of data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Don DeLoach, CEO and president of Infobright, will discuss how companies need to rethink their data infrastructure to participate in the IoT, including: Data storage: Understanding the kinds of data: structured, unstructured, big/small? Analytics: What kinds and how responsiv...
Since 2008 and for the first time in history, more than half of humans live in urban areas, urging cities to become “smart.” Today, cities can leverage the wide availability of smartphones combined with new technologies such as Beacons or NFC to connect their urban furniture and environment to create citizen-first services that improve transportation, way-finding and information delivery. In her session at @ThingsExpo, Laetitia Gazel-Anthoine, CEO of Connecthings, will focus on successful use cases.
The Workspace-as-a-Service (WaaS) market will grow to $6.4B by 2018. In his session at 16th Cloud Expo, Seth Bostock, CEO of IndependenceIT, will begin by walking the audience through the evolution of Workspace as-a-Service, where it is now vs. where it going. To look beyond the desktop we must understand exactly what WaaS is, who the users are, and where it is going in the future. IT departments, ISVs and service providers must look to workflow and automation capabilities to adapt to growing demand and the rapidly changing workspace model.
Sensor-enabled things are becoming more commonplace, precursors to a larger and more complex framework that most consider the ultimate promise of the IoT: things connecting, interacting, sharing, storing, and over time perhaps learning and predicting based on habits, behaviors, location, preferences, purchases and more. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Tom Wesselman, Director of Communications Ecosystem Architecture at Plantronics, will examine the still nascent IoT as it is coalescing, including what it is today, what it might ultimately be, the role of wearable tech, and technology gaps stil...
Almost everyone sees the potential of Internet of Things but how can businesses truly unlock that potential. The key will be in the ability to discover business insight in the midst of an ocean of Big Data generated from billions of embedded devices via Systems of Discover. Businesses will also need to ensure that they can sustain that insight by leveraging the cloud for global reach, scale and elasticity.
The Internet of Things (IoT) promises to evolve the way the world does business; however, understanding how to apply it to your company can be a mystery. Most people struggle with understanding the potential business uses or tend to get caught up in the technology, resulting in solutions that fail to meet even minimum business goals. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jesse Shiah, CEO / President / Co-Founder of AgilePoint Inc., showed what is needed to leverage the IoT to transform your business. He discussed opportunities and challenges ahead for the IoT from a market and technical point of vie...
IoT is still a vague buzzword for many people. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mike Kavis, Vice President & Principal Cloud Architect at Cloud Technology Partners, discussed the business value of IoT that goes far beyond the general public's perception that IoT is all about wearables and home consumer services. He also discussed how IoT is perceived by investors and how venture capitalist access this space. Other topics discussed were barriers to success, what is new, what is old, and what the future may hold. Mike Kavis is Vice President & Principal Cloud Architect at Cloud Technology Pa...
Hadoop as a Service (as offered by handful of niche vendors now) is a cloud computing solution that makes medium and large-scale data processing accessible, easy, fast and inexpensive. In his session at Big Data Expo, Kumar Ramamurthy, Vice President and Chief Technologist, EIM & Big Data, at Virtusa, will discuss how this is achieved by eliminating the operational challenges of running Hadoop, so one can focus on business growth. The fragmented Hadoop distribution world and various PaaS solutions that provide a Hadoop flavor either make choices for customers very flexible in the name of opti...
The true value of the Internet of Things (IoT) lies not just in the data, but through the services that protect the data, perform the analysis and present findings in a usable way. With many IoT elements rooted in traditional IT components, Big Data and IoT isn’t just a play for enterprise. In fact, the IoT presents SMBs with the prospect of launching entirely new activities and exploring innovative areas. CompTIA research identifies several areas where IoT is expected to have the greatest impact.
Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) are increasing at an unprecedented rate. The threat landscape of today is drastically different than just a few years ago. Attacks are much more organized and sophisticated. They are harder to detect and even harder to anticipate. In the foreseeable future it's going to get a whole lot harder. Everything you know today will change. Keeping up with this changing landscape is already a daunting task. Your organization needs to use the latest tools, methods and expertise to guard against those threats. But will that be enough? In the foreseeable future attacks w...