Click here to close now.

Welcome!

SOA & WOA Authors: Roger Strukhoff, Leo Reiter, Liz McMillan, AppDynamics Blog, Carmen Gonzalez

Related Topics: Cloud Expo, SOA & WOA, Virtualization, Web 2.0, Open Web, Security

Cloud Expo: Article

Encryption of Data-in-Use to Harness the Power of the Cloud

Enabling cloud adoption for organizations worldwide

Cloud computing has dramatically altered how IT infrastructure is delivered and managed, as well as how IT functionality is consumed. However, security and privacy concerns continue to be major inhibitors for risk-conscious organizations to adoption of cloud computing - whether infrastructure as a service, software as a service applications or email as a service.

Cloud service providers, in response, have made strategic decisions on the investment they make in directly addressing these concerns in order to encourage broader adoption of cloud-based services. By implementing controls and processes to further improve security, cloud service providers are increasingly aiming to deliver more safeguards for the cloud environment than individual customer could within on-premise environments. However, a significant consideration for many organizations as they look to best exploit the benefits of the cloud is whether they can retain ownership and control of data processed by third party services.

Defining Roles, Responsibilities and Data Control Borders
The value proposition delivered by cloud service providers is in managing IT infrastructure in a more flexible, scalable and cost-efficient manner than an organization could do independently. The basic roles and responsibilities of the cloud service provider therefore should focus on the security, resiliency, scalability and manageability of their service. Security encompasses not only physical datacenter security, but also the means to limit administrator access across a multi-tenant environment and customer instances based on the principle of least privilege. However, at best, the cloud service provider can only provide a set of tools and options for customers looking to encrypt data in place.

Maintaining ownership and control of data is discrete from the underlying security and processes implemented by the cloud service provider. Even though the data resides on their infrastructure, cloud service providers are compelled to maintain that an organization retains responsibility for its own data. The not-for-profit Cloud Security Alliance notes in its most recent Email Security Implementation Guidance that it is critical that the customer - not the cloud service provider - be responsible for the security and encryption protection controls necessary to meet their organization's requirements.

By contrast, the roles and responsibilities of organization in regards to corporate data remain the same regardless of where it resides or is processed: specifically, maintaining ownership and direct control of that data. When corporate data is moved from on-premise to the cloud, compliance and security requirements dictate that the organization cannot relinquish ownership or control of its data. Also, the loss of visibility into who has access to that data implies that it can be subpoenaed and handed over to law enforcement agencies without its knowledge.

Principal Business Challenges of Migrating Data to the Cloud
The principal business challenges that organizations typically face when migrating data to the cloud encompass data security, regulatory compliance, unauthorized data disclosure and access, and international privacy/ data residency regulations. These issues need to be resolved to address the requirements of the legal team, as well security or compliance officers, before moving an organization's data to the cloud.

Data Security and Risk Mitigation
In cloud computing applications, data is frequently stored and processed at the cloud provider in the clear - unless customers themselves encrypt the data-at-rest and in-use. This brings up numerous data ownership and control responsibilities/concerns for an organization.

From a structural perspective, cloud-based services pose a challenge to traditional methods of securing data. Traditionally, encryption has been used to secure data resident on internal systems, or to protect data moving from one point to another. Ensuring that data remains encrypted in place within a third-party provider's environment and throughout the data lifecycle, but is seamlessly available to authorized users presents a new set of technical challenges.

In order to satisfy the new set of requirements introduced by migration to cloud-based services, cloud data must remain in encrypted cipher format. Also, data should be encrypted before it leaves the corporate or trusted network in order to meet data residency and privacy requirements. To maintain control of data that is no longer resident on a trusted network, the encryption keys remain under the organization's control and ownership.

Regulatory Compliance Requirements for Safeguards on Sensitive Data
Organizations are subject to a broad array of regulatory requirements including federal laws such as Sarbanes-Oxley, varying state data protection measures, The USA Patriot Act and vertical-specific regulations (HIPAA, HITECH, Basel II, GLBA and PCI DSS), in addition to potential international data privacy and residency requirements such as the EU Data Protection Directive.

Although the specifics vary according to the compliance requirements specified, a common stipulation is that organizations retain control over their data and maintain mechanisms to prevent unauthorized access. For instance, HIPAA regulations require technical safeguards to ensure that each covered entity is responsible for ensuring that the data within its systems has not been changed or erased in an unauthorized manner. The GLBA specifies that financial institutions within the US are mandated to protect against any anticipated threats or hazards to the security or integrity of customer records and information. Likewise, in terms of the requirements spelled out by PCI Data Security Standards, stored cardholder data needs to be protected by strong encryption.

Unauthorized Data Disclosure and Access
In the US, personal information is protected by the Fourth Amendment. However once it is shared, it is no longer protected. Until legal guidelines are established to address the application of the Fourth Amendment in cloud computing, uploaded data is not considered private.

Cloud service providers are compelled by law to comply with subpoenas and other requests by the government to turn over customer data, including data subject to attorney-client privilege and other protected data. Often, cloud providers will only notify customers that data was turned over to the government after the fact, if at all. In some instances, they may even be expressly prohibited from notifying customers. This risk prevents many organizations from migrating sensitive data to the cloud.

International Privacy/ Data Residency Regulations
Data protection laws and privacy regulations mandate the direct control of an organization's information and safeguards for moving data outside of defined jurisdictions. These laws are broad, and are continually being implemented in a growing number of countries across the globe -- making it difficult for some organizations to fully realize the promise of cloud computing.

To comply with specific data protection laws and international privacy regulations, organizations often pay cloud providers a premium to add costly infrastructure in each location of interest, resulting in a sharp increase in costs and decrease in efficiency. Furthermore, most providers are unwilling to duplicate infrastructure in all locations, making it difficult for customers to comply with these regulations.

Implementing Best Practices for Cloud Data Control: Data-in-Use Encryption
Encryption of data-in-transit and data-at-rest has long been recognized as best practices to enforce the security and privacy of data, regardless of where it resides. However, these two states of encryption are no longer sufficient as they do not protect data while it is being processed in the cloud.

According to the Cloud Security Alliance's Encryption Implementation Guidance, organizations should implement encryption of data-in-use to ensure that data is secured for the entire duration of its lifecycle (at-rest, in-transit and in-use). To prevent unauthorized access and maintain the state of encryption even when processed in a third-party environment, enterprise IT should retain ownership of the encryption keys. As a result, the cloud provider never has access to customer data in an unencrypted form, and an organization's cloud data remains unreadable if an unauthorized third-party attempts access -- or even if the data is disclosed in response to a government request.

Figure 1: The not-for-profit industry association, the Cloud Security Alliance, recommends that organizations implement encryption of data-in-use to ensure that data is secured for the entire duration of its lifecycle (at-rest, in-transit and in-use).

Traditionally, if cloud-hosted data was encrypted, basic server-side operations such as indexing, searching and sorting records became impossible. Once cipher text was put into a SaaS application, some of the features of the program no longer worked, and the user experience suffered as a result. The implementation of data-in-use encryption supports dynamic operations such as search, sort and index of encrypted data in the cloud. Even as the data is processed by a cloud-based service, the IT department of the organization that owns the data or a trusted third party retains control of the encryption keys. As a result, application functionality is preserved and decryption is policy-driven and automated.

The Implementation of Data-in-Use Encryption Enables Organizations to Seamlessly Harness the Power of the Cloud
By addressing the concerns associated with control and ownership of proprietary data residing on third-party cloud-based servers, data-in-use encryption technology directly addresses material concerns related to compliance requirements, separation of data controls through key retention, data residency and unauthorized disclosure of data in response to a government request.

Data-in-use encryption is of particular value for organizations with the desire to independently manage data disclosure requests from law enforcement agencies. Equally, cloud service provides are not eager to be in the undesirable position of being compelled to disclose customer data. The cloud provider will still turn over customer data when presented with a subpoena or other government request because they have no choice but to comply. However, because all of the data was encrypted before it was received by the cloud provider, and the organization is holding the encryption keys, they cannot decrypt that data. Therefore, when complying with an order, the cloud provider can only turn over cipher text. If the government wants to decrypt the data, it must go directly to the organization that owns the data.

Figure 2: Sample of an authorized \ unauthorized view of sensitive data in a hosted Exchange email application.

In geographically distributed environments, smart encryption also creates a paradigm shift from requiring the data to remain locally to only requiring the encryption keys to remain locally for data. Organizations with multiple data residency requirements can deploy and maintain an instance of the encryption appliance in each jurisdiction. Once the data is encrypted with keys that are maintained in that jurisdiction, the encrypted data can lawfully reside in any location.

The addition of encryption-in-use empowers the organization to retain full ownership and control during the entire process, including when the data is out of its network and in the cloud, while ensuring maximum security and regulatory compliance.

Industry analysts agree. According to Ahmad Zeffirelli, Industry Analyst at Frost & Sullivan, "This solution with its ability to encrypt data-in-use, data-in-transit, and data-at-rest, would bring immense benefits to a vast majority of organizations concerned about data security while leveraging cloud computing."

Building Commercially Viable Encryption
One of the most difficult technical challenges in developing encryption for commercial applications running in the cloud is to establish the right balance between the competing goals of encryption/security on the one hand versus features/performance on the other. In commercial markets, especially in the cloud, introducing additional steps for users to follow in order to address security requirements both undermines the ease of use value propositions of cloud-based services and creates the likelihood that users will look for ways to circumvent controls.

The entire process should be transparent to the end-user. Specifically, the security functionality should not require the installation of an application or agent on the end user's client device or mobile phone. Also, there should be no impact to the end-user experience in terms of functionality, performance, or task workflow. Furthermore, commercially viable encryption capabilities should not interfere with standard email security features such as malware and anti-virus protection.

Conclusion
By effectively addressing data control, compliance and security requirements, while ensuring preservation of application functionality including search, sort and index capabilities and a seamless user experience, technology that enables the encryption of data-at-rest, data-in-transit and data-in-use within the cloud environment functions as an enabler for cloud adoption for organizations worldwide.

More Stories By Elad Yoran

Elad Yoran is the CEO of Vaultive, Inc. He is a recognized expert on information security market and technology trends. Yoran has 20 years of experience in the cyber security industry as an executive, consultant, investor, investment banker and several-time successful entrepreneur. He is also a member of a number of technology, security and community Boards, including FBI Information Technology Advisory Council (ITAC); Department of Homeland Security Advisory Board for Command, Control and Interoperability for Advanced Data Analysis (CCICADA); and Cloud Security Alliance New York Metro Chapter.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
Containers and microservices have become topics of intense interest throughout the cloud developer and enterprise IT communities. Accordingly, attendees at the upcoming 16th Cloud Expo at the Javits Center in New York June 9-11 will find fresh new content in a new track called PaaS | Containers & Microservices Containers are not being considered for the first time by the cloud community, but a current era of re-consideration has pushed them to the top of the cloud agenda. With the launch of Docker's initial release in March of 2013, interest was revved up several notches. Then late last...
The Workspace-as-a-Service (WaaS) market will grow to $6.4B by 2018. In his session at 16th Cloud Expo, Seth Bostock, CEO of IndependenceIT, will begin by walking the audience through the evolution of Workspace as-a-Service, where it is now vs. where it going. To look beyond the desktop we must understand exactly what WaaS is, who the users are, and where it is going in the future. IT departments, ISVs and service providers must look to workflow and automation capabilities to adapt to growing demand and the rapidly changing workspace model.
As organizations shift toward IT-as-a-service models, the need for managing and protecting data residing across physical, virtual, and now cloud environments grows with it. CommVault can ensure protection &E-Discovery of your data – whether in a private cloud, a Service Provider delivered public cloud, or a hybrid cloud environment – across the heterogeneous enterprise. In his session at 16th Cloud Expo, Randy De Meno, Chief Technologist - Windows Products and Microsoft Partnerships, will discuss how to cut costs, scale easily, and unleash insight with CommVault Simpana software, the only si...
Cloud data governance was previously an avoided function when cloud deployments were relatively small. With the rapid adoption in public cloud – both rogue and sanctioned, it’s not uncommon to find regulated data dumped into public cloud and unprotected. This is why enterprises and cloud providers alike need to embrace a cloud data governance function and map policies, processes and technology controls accordingly. In her session at 15th Cloud Expo, Evelyn de Souza, Data Privacy and Compliance Strategy Leader at Cisco Systems, will focus on how to set up a cloud data governance program and s...
Roberto Medrano, Executive Vice President at SOA Software, had reached 30,000 page views on his home page - http://RobertoMedrano.SYS-CON.com/ - on the SYS-CON family of online magazines, which includes Cloud Computing Journal, Internet of Things Journal, Big Data Journal, and SOA World Magazine. He is a recognized executive in the information technology fields of SOA, internet security, governance, and compliance. He has extensive experience with both start-ups and large companies, having been involved at the beginning of four IT industries: EDA, Open Systems, Computer Security and now SOA.
HP and Aruba Networks on Monday announced a definitive agreement for HP to acquire Aruba, a provider of next-generation network access solutions for the mobile enterprise, for $24.67 per share in cash. The equity value of the transaction is approximately $3.0 billion, and net of cash and debt approximately $2.7 billion. Both companies' boards of directors have approved the deal. "Enterprises are facing a mobile-first world and are looking for solutions that help them transition legacy investments to the new style of IT," said Meg Whitman, Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer of HP...
The industrial software market has treated data with the mentality of “collect everything now, worry about how to use it later.” We now find ourselves buried in data, with the pervasive connectivity of the (Industrial) Internet of Things only piling on more numbers. There’s too much data and not enough information. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Bob Gates, Global Marketing Director, GE’s Intelligent Platforms business, to discuss how realizing the power of IoT, software developers are now focused on understanding how industrial data can create intelligence for industrial operations. Imagine ...
Operational Hadoop and the Lambda Architecture for Streaming Data Apache Hadoop is emerging as a distributed platform for handling large and fast incoming streams of data. Predictive maintenance, supply chain optimization, and Internet-of-Things analysis are examples where Hadoop provides the scalable storage, processing, and analytics platform to gain meaningful insights from granular data that is typically only valuable from a large-scale, aggregate view. One architecture useful for capturing and analyzing streaming data is the Lambda Architecture, representing a model of how to analyze rea...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Vitria Technology, Inc. will exhibit at SYS-CON’s @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Vitria will showcase the company’s new IoT Analytics Platform through live demonstrations at booth #330. Vitria’s IoT Analytics Platform, fully integrated and powered by an operational intelligence engine, enables customers to rapidly build and operationalize advanced analytics to deliver timely business outcomes for use cases across the industrial, enterprise, and consumer segments.
The explosion of connected devices / sensors is creating an ever-expanding set of new and valuable data. In parallel the emerging capability of Big Data technologies to store, access, analyze, and react to this data is producing changes in business models under the umbrella of the Internet of Things (IoT). In particular within the Insurance industry, IoT appears positioned to enable deep changes by altering relationships between insurers, distributors, and the insured. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Michael Sick, a Senior Manager and Big Data Architect within Ernst and Young's Financial Servi...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Open Data Centers (ODC), a carrier-neutral colocation provider, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Open Data Centers is a carrier-neutral data center operator in New Jersey and New York City offering alternative connectivity options for carriers, service providers and enterprise customers.
The explosion of connected devices / sensors is creating an ever-expanding set of new and valuable data. In parallel the emerging capability of Big Data technologies to store, access, analyze, and react to this data is producing changes in business models under the umbrella of the Internet of Things (IoT). In particular within the Insurance industry, IoT appears positioned to enable deep changes by altering relationships between insurers, distributors, and the insured. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Michael Sick, a Senior Manager and Big Data Architect within Ernst and Young's Financial Servi...
PubNub on Monday has announced that it is partnering with IBM to bring its sophisticated real-time data streaming and messaging capabilities to Bluemix, IBM’s cloud development platform. “Today’s app and connected devices require an always-on connection, but building a secure, scalable solution from the ground up is time consuming, resource intensive, and error-prone,” said Todd Greene, CEO of PubNub. “PubNub enables web, mobile and IoT developers building apps on IBM Bluemix to quickly add scalable realtime functionality with minimal effort and cost.”
Sensor-enabled things are becoming more commonplace, precursors to a larger and more complex framework that most consider the ultimate promise of the IoT: things connecting, interacting, sharing, storing, and over time perhaps learning and predicting based on habits, behaviors, location, preferences, purchases and more. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Tom Wesselman, Director of Communications Ecosystem Architecture at Plantronics, will examine the still nascent IoT as it is coalescing, including what it is today, what it might ultimately be, the role of wearable tech, and technology gaps stil...
With several hundred implementations of IoT-enabled solutions in the past 12 months alone, this session will focus on experience over the art of the possible. Many can only imagine the most advanced telematics platform ever deployed, supporting millions of customers, producing tens of thousands events or GBs per trip, and hundreds of TBs per month. With the ability to support a billion sensor events per second, over 30PB of warm data for analytics, and hundreds of PBs for an data analytics archive, in his session at @ThingsExpo, Jim Kaskade, Vice President and General Manager, Big Data & Ana...
In the consumer IoT, everything is new, and the IT world of bits and bytes holds sway. But industrial and commercial realms encompass operational technology (OT) that has been around for 25 or 50 years. This grittier, pre-IP, more hands-on world has much to gain from Industrial IoT (IIoT) applications and principles. But adding sensors and wireless connectivity won’t work in environments that demand unwavering reliability and performance. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Ron Sege, CEO of Echelon, will discuss how as enterprise IT embraces other IoT-related technology trends, enterprises with i...
When it comes to the Internet of Things, hooking up will get you only so far. If you want customers to commit, you need to go beyond simply connecting products. You need to use the devices themselves to transform how you engage with every customer and how you manage the entire product lifecycle. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sean Lorenz, Technical Product Manager for Xively at LogMeIn, will show how “product relationship management” can help you leverage your connected devices and the data they generate about customer usage and product performance to deliver extremely compelling and reliabl...
The Internet of Things (IoT) is causing data centers to become radically decentralized and atomized within a new paradigm known as “fog computing.” To support IoT applications, such as connected cars and smart grids, data centers' core functions will be decentralized out to the network's edges and endpoints (aka “fogs”). As this trend takes hold, Big Data analytics platforms will focus on high-volume log analysis (aka “logs”) and rely heavily on cognitive-computing algorithms (aka “cogs”) to make sense of it all.
One of the biggest impacts of the Internet of Things is and will continue to be on data; specifically data volume, management and usage. Companies are scrambling to adapt to this new and unpredictable data reality with legacy infrastructure that cannot handle the speed and volume of data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Don DeLoach, CEO and president of Infobright, will discuss how companies need to rethink their data infrastructure to participate in the IoT, including: Data storage: Understanding the kinds of data: structured, unstructured, big/small? Analytics: What kinds and how responsiv...
Since 2008 and for the first time in history, more than half of humans live in urban areas, urging cities to become “smart.” Today, cities can leverage the wide availability of smartphones combined with new technologies such as Beacons or NFC to connect their urban furniture and environment to create citizen-first services that improve transportation, way-finding and information delivery. In her session at @ThingsExpo, Laetitia Gazel-Anthoine, CEO of Connecthings, will focus on successful use cases.