Click here to close now.


Microservices Expo Authors: Elizabeth White, Ian Goldsmith, Victoria Livschitz, Lori MacVittie, Jason Bloomberg

Related Topics: Java IoT, Industrial IoT, Microservices Expo, Open Source Cloud, IoT User Interface, Apache

Java IoT: Blog Feed Post

Agile Architecture

The platform architecture defines common services that manage business delivery

The English language is well known for its subtlety. Sometimes it’s a delight, but on other occasions it can be very frustrating. If I use the term Gothic Architecture you will immediately understand I am describing a style of architecture that flourished in medieval times. And if like me you are interested in ecclesiastical architecture you will know that this style was used in many of the great cathedrals and churches across Europe, which were distinctive because of key architectural patterns that enabled great increases in height and internal light of the buildings without increasing the size of supporting pillars.

Now if I use the term Agile Architecture, what am I referring to? In today’s Agile world I would hazard a guess that most readers will think I am referring to the architecture techniques and tasks undertaken in the context of an Agile software development project, not the collection of patterns and practices that enable agile business systems. That is, an architecture that enables agility.

This potential for miscommunication is a core issue for enterprises. There is ample evidence that Agile Architecture is a primary contributor to business agility, yet we do not have a well understood architecture management system that integrates with Agile methods.

Let’s use an example readers may be familiar with. Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos famously [1]issued an edict that laid down some key architecture principles to Amazon development teams that I will summarize as:
· All teams will henceforth expose their data and functionality through service interfaces.
· Teams must communicate with each other through these interfaces. There will be no other form of interprocess communication allowed.
· It doesn't matter what technology they use.
· All service interfaces, without exception, must be designed from the ground up to be externalizable.
· No exceptions.

What Bezos did here was to lay down key business and technology architecture principles that you might reasonably conclude were central to the extraordinary level of business agility that we have seen demonstrated by, Inc. That widely circulated edict contained the foundations of the Amazon reference architecture.  

In the October 2004 CBDI Journal[2] we commented, “Two of the most successful and enduring dotcom start-ups, Amazon and eBay, now expose their core applications as Web Services. In doing so they have created a new class of platform that could have a profound impact on end-user organizations and IT vendors alike.”

And so the reference architecture became the enabler of growth and agility for the Amazon business, not we understand[3] as a grand plan, but through natural technological evolution. The services formed the platform that allowed the extraordinary expansion of the Amazon business that I would be certain not even Jeff Bezos imagined, back then in 2004. That is real business agility, and it was delivered by smart architecture backed up by clear policies and realized by agile processes.

Although Amazon has clearly evolved in pursuit of solutions to specific business opportunities and challenges, it’s also clear they have established a de facto architecture and architecture management system that guides the work of the many product delivery teams and ensures consistency of approach where it’s required. Let’s consider how an enterprise might establish a similar agile architecture management system.

A reference architecture articulates primary principles that are typically central to an entire enterprise. Principles should be focused on establishing the product and solution independent environment in which agility can be delivered and maintained, so they would be stable over time. We might refer to reference architecture as a Level 1 architecture perspective (L1) that exists purely as a set of models and guidelines.

Larger enterprises should explore the business value potential of platform based architecture as a mechanism to deliver cross enterprise consistency of core reference architecture behaviors and to enable closer integration with the wider ecosystem including customers, suppliers, end consumers etc. This is an extended management services platform which encapsulates the technology infrastructure and enables rapid delivery of business services.

The platform architecture defines common services that manage business delivery including security, life cycle management, change management, release management and operations, as well as catalogs, eCommerce, B2B, regulatory control and risk management, standardizing these key capabilities and reducing the footprint of business domain services. The platform will also manage important behaviors that deliver on specific business goals such as scalability and availability. For example, Amazon services are usually very fine grained, specifically to reduce the scope of each service in order to facilitate narrow focus SLAs and maximize scalability by reducing individual service complexity. We might refer to platform architecture as a Level 2 architecture perspective, engineered to be relatively stable in support of  large numbers of business services and consumers, but also engineered to evolve and respond rapidly to business and technology change. Not all enterprises will see business value in making their platform and business services available to their ecosystem, but some will.

Enterprises clearly vary considerably in their make up in terms of geographic and organizational, product and process standardization and differentiation, but typically there will be considerable potential for an inventory of shared assets that leverage agile architecture to support business agility. The assets may include:
· Common services, frameworks and components that are designed to deliver common behaviors to all parts of the enterprise. For example core services that establish genuinely enterprise wide services such as Customer, Ticket, eCommerce etc; services that deliver business value by standardizing common business services and processes.

· Configurable services, frameworks and components that are designed to provide common behaviors but are engineered to be customizable in local situations to accommodate many aspects of localization ranging from the simple – taxation, geography etc, to the complex – variant ordering patterns, variations in event and process sequence dictated by local de facto business practices. Configurable services may provide business value simply by providing reusable components, or they may establish a common core of business process and information that establishes common reporting and regulatory control in a local context, or both. Configurable services may also be an important time to market strategy for service providers who customize their services for each client or customer group.

· Information architecture and services. Establishing a coherent approach to information is commonly a major issue for large enterprises and this architecture level defines an integrated approach for structured and unstructured (big) data, transactional and reference, enterprise reporting and regulatory control and so on.

Common and Configurable assets together with the Information Architecture might form a Level 3 architecture perspective and be widely applicable across a large, distributed enterprise.  

We then have two further levels which are closely related, Family Architecture and Product Line Architecture. Whilst many architects chose to view Family and Product Line as synonyms, I recommend that they are kept separate. A Family architecture is a domain framework that is much more specialized that L3 assets that would be applicable on a broader basis. The Family architecture establishes core business (domain) services and possibly other artifacts specific to the domain, where the domain is likely to be a subject area or a cluster of major types. For example Customer, Supply Chain, Manufacturing, Risk etc. Families are also commonly acquired products.

In contrast Product Line architecture is what it says – it’s the architecture for a product offering. The product is an offering that has direct relationship to end customer revenue and usually continuity of purpose over multiple releases. Although from a narrow technical perspective the Product and Family architectures might be similar, the way a product is managed must mirror the business product life cycle. Family architectures may therefore be engineered for stability, whereas, depending on the industry sector, product line architectures may be engineered for maximum agility and minimum response time.  

Finally we have the Solution architecture level, the architecture specific to solution project delivery, where the focus is on feature architecture and integrating solution architecture with the Level 1 to 5 architecture perspectives. It’s important to note that where product line architecture is used, then this may subsume the Solution architecture.

These six architecture levels provide us with a nomenclature for agile architecture that will be central to managing agility into the delivered product/solution. The architecture perspective guides the structure of programs and projects and the incorporation of architecture and reuse goals into delivery charters. The architecture also provides traceability and governance over realization of core architecture principles.

The question of how Agile Architecture integrates with Agile delivery is likely to prove contentious because architecture introduces a form of direction that contradicts Agile concepts. Yet the lessons from Amazon are insightful. The most senior business management need to be fully engaged and actively leading the development of architectural direction. Further in large enterprises customer project demand needs to be managed and aligned with business strategy and architectural direction.

There’s no reason why these Demand and Definition processes shouldn’t adopt Agile concepts, notably cross functional teams, time boxes and backlogs. The outcomes should be excellent visibility and traceability of key strategies and policies that provide real clarity of purpose for projects, that will increase the probability of success. In a typical large enterprise use of existing (or well understood) organizational concepts, adjusted to use aspects of Agile methods as discussed, will meet less organizational resistance. For example:  

1. Architecture Review Board (ARB) or equivalent, a cross functional team (senior representatives of business, product management, architecture and delivery), that provide direction and funding to all architecture development.
2. Design Authority (DA), also a cross functional team (domain specific expert level representatives of business, product management, architecture and delivery), that transform raw customer demand stream into project charters and manage the portfolio view. It is the DA that takes responsibility for aggregating and decomposing customer and strategic demand, chartering Common, Product Line and Family architecture, typically as integral elements of delivery projects, which can demonstrate business value.
3. Investigatory architecture projects – short duration projects that validate assumptions prior to chartering composite architecture/delivery projects. Sometimes carried out as part of a Definition Phase activity concurrent with outline requirements and knowledge discovery. Using patterns as a mechanism to increase consistency of architecture decisions and communicate them to delivery projects at sensible level of detail that is useful to delivery teams.  Recommend includes delivery team members as appropriate.
Note this is a recursive model, and the process may executed at enterprise and program level.

You may ask where Enterprise Architecture is in this. The answer is that enterprise architecture is a role and responsibility that must coordinate and govern all levels of architecture. Enterprise Architects are most likely to be assigned to a specific architecture perspective level. The notion of, “one architecture to rule them all” really doesn’t exist.
Each enterprise should develop its own architecture management approach, and integrate this into an end to end architecture, delivery and governance process. The term Agile Architecture should be used to describe and deliver architecture that facilitates the agile business by compliance with reference, platform and other architectures that facilitate evolution, customization and plug and play. Faster cycle time and quality outcomes are then a function of both the reusable patterns and parts available for assembly and the Agile delivery process.  

In medieval times the builders of the Gothic cathedrals didn’t start their designs from scratch. But equally they didn’t have finely detailed (ivory tower) plans – the technology didn’t exist to support that. Master builders moved from city to city bringing their proven architecture in their heads, often together with experienced craftsmen, to new projects. Craftsmen and master builders together tried out new designs and gradually evolved core patterns such as the flying buttress, which became standard components in cathedrals across Europe. Sometimes the great buildings fell down during construction and the builders had to adapt the architecture and try again. They were truly early adopters of Agile methods as they combined architecture and build in what clearly was from time to time an empirical delivery approach, but they also had their equivalent of a reference architecture and patterns that enabled systematic reuse of proven designs. Of course their delivery cycle time was a little longer than today’s Agile project!

Talk to Everware-CBDIabout the Agile Enterprise Workshop. This is currently available as an in-house, intensive workshop. Public scheduled classes will hopefully follow next year.

[1] Amazon and eBay Web Services, The New Enterprise Applications? By Lawrence Wilkes, CBDI Journal October 2004

[2] Inadvertently published by Steve Yegge, 2011, in a comparison of Google and Amazon practices.

[3] Werner Vogels, 2006, SOA creates order out of chaos @ Amazon, Rich Seeley, Search SOA

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By David Sprott

David Sprott is a consultant, researcher and educator specializing in service oriented architecture, application modernization and cloud computing. Since 1997 David founded and led the well known think tank CBDI Forum providing unique research and guidance around loose coupled architecture, technologies and practices to F5000 companies and governments worldwide. As CEO of Everware-CBDI International a UK based corporation, he directs the global research and international consulting operations of the leading independent advisors on Service Oriented Application Modernization.

@MicroservicesExpo Stories
I’ve been thinking a bit about microservices (μServices) recently. My immediate reaction is to think: “Isn’t this just yet another new term for the same stuff, Web Services->SOA->APIs->Microservices?” Followed shortly by the thought, “well yes it is, but there are some important differences/distinguishing factors.” Microservices is an evolutionary paradigm born out of the need for simplicity (i.e., get away from the ESB) and alignment with agile (think DevOps) and scalable (think Containerizati...
DevOps Summit at Cloud Expo 2014 Silicon Valley was a terrific event for us. The Qubell booth was crowded on all three days. We ran demos every 30 minutes with folks lining up to get a seat and usually standing around. It was great to meet and talk to over 500 people! My keynote was well received and so was Stan's joint presentation with RingCentral on Devops for BigData. I also participated in two Power Panels – ‘Women in Technology’ and ‘Why DevOps Is Even More Important than You Think,’ both ...
The cloud has reached mainstream IT. Those 18.7 million data centers out there (server closets to corporate data centers to colocation deployments) are moving to the cloud. In his session at 17th Cloud Expo, Achim Weiss, CEO & co-founder of ProfitBricks, will share how two companies – one in the U.S. and one in Germany – are achieving their goals with cloud infrastructure. More than a case study, he will share the details of how they prioritized their cloud computing infrastructure deployments ...
Application availability is not just the measure of “being up”. Many apps can claim that status. Technically they are running and responding to requests, but at a rate which users would certainly interpret as being down. That’s because excessive load times can (and will be) interpreted as “not available.” That’s why it’s important to view ensuring application availability as requiring attention to all its composite parts: scalability, performance, and security.
Somebody call the buzzword police: we have a serious case of microservices-washing in progress. The term “microservices-washing” is derived from “whitewashing,” meaning to hide some inconvenient truth with bluster and nonsense. We saw plenty of cloudwashing a few years ago, as vendors and enterprises alike pretended what they were doing was cloud, even though it wasn’t. Today, the hype around microservices has led to the same kind of obfuscation, as vendors and enterprise technologists alike ar...
Clearly the way forward is to move to cloud be it bare metal, VMs or containers. One aspect of the current public clouds that is slowing this cloud migration is cloud lock-in. Every cloud vendor is trying to make it very difficult to move out once a customer has chosen their cloud. In his session at 17th Cloud Expo, Naveen Nimmu, CEO of Clouber, Inc., will advocate that making the inter-cloud migration as simple as changing airlines would help the entire industry to quickly adopt the cloud wit...
Apps and devices shouldn't stop working when there's limited or no network connectivity. Learn how to bring data stored in a cloud database to the edge of the network (and back again) whenever an Internet connection is available. In his session at 17th Cloud Expo, Bradley Holt, Developer Advocate at IBM Cloud Data Services, will demonstrate techniques for replicating cloud databases with devices in order to build offline-first mobile or Internet of Things (IoT) apps that can provide a better, ...
“All our customers are looking at the cloud ecosystem as an important part of their overall product strategy. Some see it evolve as a multi-cloud / hybrid cloud strategy, while others are embracing all forms of cloud offerings like PaaS, IaaS and SaaS in their solutions,” noted Suhas Joshi, Vice President – Technology, at Harbinger Group, in this exclusive Q&A with Cloud Expo Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff.
Jack Welch, the former CEO of GE once said - “If the rate of change on the outside is happening faster than the rate of change on the inside, the end is in sight.” This rings truer than ever – especially because business success is inextricably associated with those organizations who’ve got really good at delivering high-quality software innovations – innovations that disrupt existing markets and carve out new ones. Like the businesses they’ve helped digitally transform, DevOps teams and Conti...
This week, the team assembled in NYC for @Cloud Expo 2015 and @ThingsExpo 2015. For the past four years, this has been a must-attend event for MetraTech. We were happy to once again join industry visionaries, colleagues, customers and even competitors to share and explore the ways in which the Internet of Things (IoT) will impact our industry. Over the course of the show, we discussed the types of challenges we will collectively need to solve to capitalize on the opportunity IoT presents.
All we need to do is have our teams self-organize, and behold! Emergent design and/or architecture springs up out of the nothingness! If only it were that easy, right? I follow in the footsteps of so many people who have long wondered at the meanings of such simple words, as though they were dogma from on high. Emerge? Self-organizing? Profound, to be sure. But what do we really make of this sentence?
Docker is hot. However, as Docker container use spreads into more mature production pipelines, there can be issues about control of Docker images to ensure they are production-ready. Is a promotion-based model appropriate to control and track the flow of Docker images from development to production? In his session at DevOps Summit, Fred Simon, Co-founder and Chief Architect of JFrog, will demonstrate how to implement a promotion model for Docker images using a binary repository, and then show h...
SYS-CON Events announced today that HPM Networks will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For 20 years, HPM Networks has been integrating technology solutions that solve complex business challenges. HPM Networks has designed solutions for both SMB and enterprise customers throughout the San Francisco Bay Area.
DevOps is speeding towards the IT world like a freight train and the hype around it is deafening. There is no reason to be afraid of this change as it is the natural reaction to the agile movement that revolutionized development just a few years ago. By definition, DevOps is the natural alignment of IT performance to business profitability. The relevance of this has yet to be quantified but it has been suggested that the route to the CEO’s chair will come from the IT leaders that successfully ma...
Mobile has become standard in the enterprise with smartphones and tablets common in the workplace. Anywhere, anytime access to company systems is expected and systems must work flawlessly on these devices! This demand is requiring that corporate IT departments figure out the best mobile strategy to follow. This eBook looks at how to kick start your mobile application strategy.
Even though you are running an agile development process, that doesn’t necessarily mean that your performance testing is being conducted in a truly agile way. Saving performance testing for a “final sprint” before release still treats it like a waterfall development step, with all the cost and risk that comes with that. In this post, we will show you how to make load testing happen early and often by putting SLAs on the agile task board.
Today, we are in the middle of a paradigm shift as we move from managing applications on VMs and containers to embracing everything that the cloud and XaaS (Everything as a Service) has to offer. In his session at 17th Cloud Expo, Kevin Hoffman, Advisory Solutions Architect at Pivotal Cloud Foundry, will provide an overview of 12-factor apps and migrating enterprise apps to the cloud. Kevin Hoffman is an Advisory Solutions Architect for Pivotal Cloud Foundry, and has spent the past 20 years b...
Go ahead. Name a cloud environment that doesn't include load balancing as the key enabler of elastic scalability. I've got coffee... so it's good, take your time... Exactly. Load balancing - whether implemented as traditional high availability pairs or clustering - provides the means by which applications (and infrastructure, in many cases) scale horizontally. It is load balancing that is at the heart of elastic scalability models, and that provides a means to ensure availability and even imp...
SYS-CON Events announced today that HPM Networks will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For 20 years, HPM Networks has been integrating technology solutions that solve complex business challenges. HPM Networks has designed solutions for both SMB and enterprise customers throughout the San Francisco Bay Area.
SYS-CON Events announced today that has been named a "Bronze Sponsor" of SYS-CON's @DevOpsSummit Silicon Valley, which will take place November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. provides open-source software ELK turned into a log analytics platform that is simple, infinitely- scalable, highly available, and secure.