|By Kapil Raval||
|February 19, 2013 06:30 AM EST||
The networking industry has gone through different waves over last 30+ years. In the '80s, the first wave was all about connecting and sharing; how to connect a computer to other peripheral devices and other computers. There were many players who developed technology and services to address that, e.g. Novell, 3Com, Sun, IBM, DEC, Nortel. Across the industry, small islands of various protocols were created with multiple gateways to bridge them.
In 90's and 00's, Cisco dominated the industry and did a brilliant job of pushing the industry towards a common approach built on Ethernet. They built a hugely successful business and ecosystem and even created new markets like VoIP on the proposition that networking should be on a common highway. We also saw isolation of networks from the rest of the IT infrastructure, in the sense that software innovations continued in the server and storage environments independent of the network area. The focus also remained on different components of the infrastructure and not on the ‘service' delivered by the combination of those infrastructure components, i.e., server, storage and network.
Now, it is all about orchestrated service delivery which requires standards-based open approach. According to Gartner reports on Emerging Technology Analysis and Key Issues for Communications Strategies, a) over 50% workloads will be virtualized by the end of 2012 thanks to Cloud computing, and b) more than 80% of traffic will be server-to-server by 2014 due to federated applications and virtualization.
In this article, I attempt to highlight why we have reached limits of current network technology, how Software Defined Networking will lead the next wave of innovations and its benefits to the IT industry. Today, network elements like switches and routers have resident software in each box. The software in the box provides intelligence using distributed algorithms to decide how each packet should be handled by it. In order for the entire network to function properly, the software in each box must work in coordination with other boxes. This approach has served us well so far.
The coordinated distributed algorithms however make it difficult to introduce a change on the fly. We have to reconfigure the embedded software on all network components (often called boxes) to implement any change. On the other hand, the wave of virtualization demands flexible, adaptive and nimble networks. This wave exposes limitations of the current networking approach, which is inflexible and protocol-heavy. As distributed algorithms are used, not one box has a global view of the network. This results in over provisioning at the time of designing and guess-work while trouble-shooting. For large cloud deployments, compute and storage environments can be virtualized and consumed easily but because of the limitations of networks, its full potential is not realized.
Typically, a network administrator spends a lot of time planning and then configuring the network components with changing business requirements and varying network traffic. Network administrators learn a lot by trial and error and the resulting expertise based on experience is limited to the experienced few.
Research students at Stanford, Berkley and other universities found it hard to experiment with their networks because the software is embedded in each switch or a router and any change has to be coordinated between vendors to make the distributed algorithms interoperable to provide the functionality they needed for research & experimentation. It is with this simple objective that the idea of OpenFlow was born. The first step that these researchers took was to develop ability to program switches, from a remote controller. The OpenFlow protocol was developed to support communication between a switch and a controller. It allows external control software to control the data path of a switch, bypassing traditional L2 and L3 protocols and associated configurations. OpenFlow protocol defines messages, such as packet-received, send-packet-out, modify-forwarding-table, and get-stats. The researchers added OpenFlow support to existing boxes and allowed OpenFlow controller to program part of Flow-Table entries for research and experimentation while rest of the box worked as before. This gave them control over switches from a controller running on a remote industry standard server. This was the start of OpenFlow which basically separated the physical or data layer from the control layer.
OpenFlow and SDN became quite popular in the research community and several service providers and some vendors started to see the value of this approach. Researchers from Stanford and Berkeley took the lead but Open Networking Foundation (ONF) was founded by leading providers (Google, Yahoo!, Microsoft, Facebook, Deutsche Telecom, and Verizon). Some vendors, like HP, expressed their support from the beginning. ONF is the body which defines, standardizes and enhances OpenFlow protocol. ONF has a bigger charter with SDN that goes beyond OpenFlow protocol. It promotes SDN and may standardize different parts of SDN. As a policy, vendors cannot join its board but can become members of ONF and lead some working groups. Vendors have influence over the emerging standard though they don't set the overall agenda and they don't make final decisions on what is standardized and what is not.
Another interesting point is that ONF wants to do as little standardization as possible to encourage creativity. At first it sounded a bit conflicting but ONF looks at the software industry and tries to follow it by taking its best practices. When you look at the software industry, there are fewer standards than the network industry and it has created more innovations and jobs than the network industry. The Network industry has too many protocols defined and standardized, resulting in more complexity and fewer innovations. Academicians are influencing ONF and ensuring that we don't end up with another rigid, inflexible and protocol heavy networking world. ONF has 66 members today and its membership costs $30k/year. This is relatively high compared to other such bodies and the reason could be to ensure that only genuinely interested parties become members. We know that breakthrough innovations would come from small start-ups, some of whom would find it difficult to spend so much for the annual membership. On the other hand, ONF ensures that the development made as part of their body is made available to all members at no charge or royalty etc. One would end up spending more than $30k in lawyer's fees to get the royalty arrangements sorted out.
Google, Amazon, Rackspace, etc., have already implemented OpenFlow based networks, using proprietary hardware and in-house developed software. We see many new start-up focused on this new area to develop applications that leverage virtualized network. Most cloud providers manage huge data centers. "Every day Amazon Web Services (AWS) adds enough new capacity to support all of Amazon.com's global infrastructure through the company's first 5 years, when it was a $2.76 billion annual revenue enterprise" according to Jim Hamilton, their VP at large.
Google embraced OpenFlow very early on. Google's inter-datacenter production network, largest in the world by traffic, runs on OpenFlow and SDN. Google proved that OpenFlow based networks can scale and deliver its promise. The biggest use case, according to Google, for Central controllers is the fact that we can do re-routing, anticipating an event, e.g. if we know that we are introducing a new service which will lead to traffic load, we can pre-provision network in a way to best optimize infrastructure resources. If a small business, say a Flower shop, expects more traffic and compute power on a Valentine day, it is easy to have compute and storage power made available with standard virtualization technology available today. But to make network resources available on demand is challenging. This is where an OpenFlow controller controlling switches can easily provide necessary bandwidth and then tear it down or redirect the network resources for other requests. Google example is impressive but one could argue that how many enterprise customers could afford or dare to do what Google can do. Moreover, just because it made a business case for Google does not mean that it can make a business case for everyone. Each customer will have to evaluate their network, future growth requirements etc and see if there is a positive business case.
Software Defined Networking (SDN) can help you make the network ready for Cloud-bursting as and when required. SDN opens up many possibilities. For example;
- Packet Flow redirection: There is a lot of video traffic coming from sources we trust. Security services on such traffic are not required for some applications. As security services are extremely infrastructure-hungry and CPU-intensive, passing all data to it leads to a sprawl of security devices (many IDS/ IPS, DPI appliances) to monitor traffic. With OpenFlow we can easily redirect traffic away from the costly resources for trusted traffic.
- Policy Management: Because you now have global view of the network and can control the network with software running on OpenFlow controller, defining and implementing business policies become easier, e.g. better bandwidth management: In case of excess traffic which is not anticipated, the controller can make sure to program the network in such a way that higher priority business traffic is given more resources than low priority traffic.
- Virtual Application Network: The OpenFlow controller lets us create virtual networks for different applications on one physical network, such that different applications can have different bandwidth and QoS based on their requirements, with auditable network isolation between applications and simpler compliance (a requirement for the financial industry). One can provide each customer a separate virtual domain for them to manage
- Network Security: OpenFlow can be used to make networks more secure and agile. The OpenFlow controller allows us to monitor and manage network security and
-Dynamically insert security services at any point in the network (on-demand firewall or IDS/IPS, for example)
-Monitor traffic and re-direct suspect flows for full inspection
-Combine per-flow QoS control with network management systems to leverage traffic and end-user identity information
-Dynamically detect and mitigate attacks due to infected PCs by using signature/reputation database to create rules that address specific attacks
- Proprietary Appliances: It is very common today to deploy appliances in the network to deliver specific functionalities. These proprietary appliances can be replaced with an OpenFlow controller and a software application delivering the specific functionality. Communication Service Providers have a significant number of network services that can take advantage of virtualization and industry standard servers. Many application specific appliances that are running on custom ASIC (WAN optimization, Firewalls, DPI, SPAM/MAIL appliances, IDS etc) are good candidates for the SDN approach.
- As SDN matures, a couple of years down the road, more futuristic use case is to monitor traffic patterns, generate intelligence and then use the intelligence to anticipate traffic patterns and optimize available resources. Using this kind of intelligence, we can actually reduce power consumption, too. For example, if we know the usage of the network is less during the nights and early mornings, we can shut off parts of the network in such a way that we still get complete connectivity, yet not have the complete network up.
The list of use cases is growing on a daily basis and will continue to grow even faster as the pace of innovation increases. The number of new start-ups in this area is increasing rapidly. Finally, the networking field, which has been quite dull from the perspective of new innovations, is going to be more vibrant and exciting with new possibilities. Moreover, if ONF is successful in maintaining ‘Open standards', SDN will allow plug and play with multivendor products, empowering IT and Network operators to be more cost-effective and adaptive to agility requirements of a business. We will see that with SDN, the network industry will mirror the innovations and developments seen in the server and storage fields.
Some vendors want to have API's well-defined for applications to leverage OpenFlow controllers or have more protocols supported. It is prudent on the part of ONF not to define and standardize too much and let the market define what an acceptable standard is. It is important to keep OpenFlow protocol unrestricted by defining and standardizing not more than what is absolutely required. This will fuel innovations.
OpenFlow protocol is in its infancy but it has generated tremendous interest from customers, researchers as well as vendors. One can argue that it is not fully matured or ready for prime time but most agree that it will change the network industry fundamentally. It will make the industry more flexible, nimble and drive more innovations. This train has left the station while some debate that its destination is not well-defined or its ETA is not known. The hardware vendors will have to accept the fact that networking hardware will be commoditized just like servers and storage. OpenFlow/SDN, for sure, opens up opportunities for different network based applications. This is where current vendors will have to focus on to continue to play a major role in the future. Network administrators will not be spending hours reconfiguring switches and routers. They will have to get skilled on how to control, manage, test and implement changes from a central controller.
Although the OpenFlow protocol is defined, there are not many vendors in the market supporting its latest version 1.3. Moreover, there is a lack of tools to test, monitor and manage this new environment. HP and other major vendors have openly embraced OpenFlow and are investing in it. HP was one of the first major network vendors to invest in this area, with 60+ deployments of 16 different switches supporting OpenFlow. HP is also leading one of the task forces of ONF to evolve the OpenFlow protocol. With its traditional strength in IT performance & operations (test, monitor and manage) management and telecom OSS, HP is well-positioned to deliver a complete future-proof infrastructure solution, (consisting of server, storage, networking, software, security and analytics) for enterprise IT as well as telecom service providers.
With online viewership and sales growing rapidly, enterprises are interested in understanding how they analyze performance to positively impact business metrics. Deeper insight into the user experience is needed to understand why conversions are dropping and/or bounce rates are increasing or, preferably, to understand what has been helping these metrics improve. The digital performance management industry has evolved as application performance management companies have broadened their scope beyo...
Sep. 30, 2016 09:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,426
SYS-CON Events announced today the Kubernetes and Google Container Engine Workshop, being held November 3, 2016, in conjunction with @DevOpsSummit at 19th Cloud Expo at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. This workshop led by Sebastian Scheele introduces participants to Kubernetes and Google Container Engine (GKE). Through a combination of instructor-led presentations, demonstrations, and hands-on labs, students learn the key concepts and practices for deploying and maintainin...
Sep. 30, 2016 09:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,800
In this strange new world where more and more power is drawn from business technology, companies are effectively straddling two paths on the road to innovation and transformation into digital enterprises. The first path is the heritage trail – with “legacy” technology forming the background. Here, extant technologies are transformed by core IT teams to provide more API-driven approaches. Legacy systems can restrict companies that are transitioning into digital enterprises. To truly become a lea...
Sep. 30, 2016 08:15 PM EDT Reads: 741
All clouds are not equal. To succeed in a DevOps context, organizations should plan to develop/deploy apps across a choice of on-premise and public clouds simultaneously depending on the business needs. This is where the concept of the Lean Cloud comes in - resting on the idea that you often need to relocate your app modules over their life cycles for both innovation and operational efficiency in the cloud. In his session at @DevOpsSummit at19th Cloud Expo, Valentin (Val) Bercovici, CTO of So...
Sep. 30, 2016 08:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,561
Throughout history, various leaders have risen up and tried to unify the world by conquest. Fortunately, none of their plans have succeeded. The world goes on just fine with each country ruling itself; no single ruler is necessary. That’s how it is with the container platform ecosystem, as well. There’s no need for one all-powerful, all-encompassing container platform. Think about any other technology sector out there – there are always multiple solutions in every space. The same goes for conta...
Sep. 30, 2016 07:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,306
Just over a week ago I received a long and loud sustained applause for a presentation I delivered at this year’s Cloud Expo in Santa Clara. I was extremely pleased with the turnout and had some very good conversations with many of the attendees. Over the next few days I had many more meaningful conversations and was not only happy with the results but also learned a few new things. Here is everything I learned in those three days distilled into three short points.
Sep. 30, 2016 07:15 PM EDT Reads: 5,403
24Notion is full-service global creative digital marketing, technology and lifestyle agency that combines strategic ideas with customized tactical execution. With a broad understand of the art of traditional marketing, new media, communications and social influence, 24Notion uniquely understands how to connect your brand strategy with the right consumer. 24Notion ranked #12 on Corporate Social Responsibility - Book of List.
Sep. 30, 2016 07:15 PM EDT Reads: 445
The Jevons Paradox suggests that when technological advances increase efficiency of a resource, it results in an overall increase in consumption. Writing on the increased use of coal as a result of technological improvements, 19th-century economist William Stanley Jevons found that these improvements led to the development of new ways to utilize coal. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Mark Thiele, Chief Strategy Officer for Apcera, will compare the Jevons Paradox to modern-day enterprise IT, e...
Sep. 30, 2016 07:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,453
SYS-CON Events announced today that Commvault, a global leader in enterprise data protection and information management, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Commvault is a leading provider of data protection and information management solutions, helping companies worldwide activate their data to drive more value and business insight and to transform moder...
Sep. 30, 2016 06:30 PM EDT Reads: 2,907
SYS-CON Events announced today that eCube Systems, a leading provider of middleware modernization, integration, and management solutions, will exhibit at @DevOpsSummit at 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. eCube Systems offers a family of middleware evolution products and services that maximize return on technology investment by leveraging existing technical equity to meet evolving business needs. ...
Sep. 30, 2016 06:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,624
SYS-CON Events has announced today that Roger Strukhoff has been named conference chair of Cloud Expo and @ThingsExpo 2016 Silicon Valley. The 19th Cloud Expo and 6th @ThingsExpo will take place on November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. "The Internet of Things brings trillions of dollars of opportunity to developers and enterprise IT, no matter how you measure it," stated Roger Strukhoff. "More importantly, it leverages the power of devices and the Interne...
Sep. 30, 2016 06:15 PM EDT Reads: 3,535
Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Meanwhile, 94% of enterprises are using some form of XaaS - software, platform, and infrastructure as a service.
Sep. 30, 2016 04:45 PM EDT Reads: 961
Whether they’re located in a public, private, or hybrid cloud environment, cloud technologies are constantly evolving. While the innovation is exciting, the end mission of delivering business value and rapidly producing incremental product features is paramount. In his session at @DevOpsSummit at 19th Cloud Expo, Kiran Chitturi, CTO Architect at Sungard AS, will discuss DevOps culture, its evolution of frameworks and technologies, and how it is achieving maturity. He will also cover various st...
Sep. 30, 2016 04:45 PM EDT Reads: 2,016
DevOps at Cloud Expo, taking place Nov 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 19th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The widespread success of cloud computing is driving the DevOps revolution in enterprise IT. Now as never before, development teams must communicate and collaborate in a dynamic, 24/7/365 environment. There is no time to wait for long dev...
Sep. 30, 2016 04:00 PM EDT Reads: 3,594
Video experiences should be unique and exciting! But that doesn’t mean you need to patch all the pieces yourself. Users demand rich and engaging experiences and new ways to connect with you. But creating robust video applications at scale can be complicated, time-consuming and expensive. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Zohar Babin, Vice President of Platform, Ecosystem and Community at Kaltura, will discuss how VPaaS enables you to move fast, creating scalable video experiences that reach your ...
Sep. 30, 2016 03:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,264
Information technology is an industry that has always experienced change, and the dramatic change sweeping across the industry today could not be truthfully described as the first time we've seen such widespread change impacting customer investments. However, the rate of the change, and the potential outcomes from today's digital transformation has the distinct potential to separate the industry into two camps: Organizations that see the change coming, embrace it, and successful leverage it; and...
Sep. 30, 2016 01:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,294
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 19th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal and enterprise IT since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago. All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices - comp...
Sep. 30, 2016 01:15 PM EDT Reads: 5,169
It's been a busy time for tech's ongoing infatuation with containers. Amazon just announced EC2 Container Registry to simply container management. The new Azure container service taps into Microsoft's partnership with Docker and Mesosphere. You know when there's a standard for containers on the table there's money on the table, too. Everyone is talking containers because they reduce a ton of development-related challenges and make it much easier to move across production and testing environm...
Sep. 30, 2016 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 6,024
19th Cloud Expo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Meanwhile, 94% of enterpri...
Sep. 30, 2016 12:45 PM EDT Reads: 4,508
Apache Hadoop is a key technology for gaining business insights from your Big Data, but the penetration into enterprises is shockingly low. In fact, Apache Hadoop and Big Data proponents recognize that this technology has not yet achieved its game-changing business potential. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, John Mertic, director of program management for ODPi at The Linux Foundation, will explain why this is, how we can work together as an open data community to increase adoption, and the i...
Sep. 30, 2016 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,220