|By Jason McC. Smith||
|May 1, 2012 01:28 PM EDT||
Design patterns are one of the most successful advances in software engineering, by any measure. The history of design patterns is a strange one though, and somewhere along the way, much of their original utility and elegance has been forgotten, misplaced, or simply miscommunicated. This book can fill in some possible gaps for those who have experience with design patterns and can provide students new to the literature a better way of consuming it bite by bite. When it comes down to it, the design patterns literature as it stands is a collection of rather large nuggets of information of varying degrees of digestibility. This text is a foundation that provides a practitioner familiar with design patterns a methodology for placing those nuggets into a larger system of understanding and provides the student new to design patterns an approach for learning them from basic principles and in smaller pieces that make sense individually. The Elemental Design Patterns are truly elemental in that they form a foundation for design patterns as a discipline.
The collective wisdom of the software engineering community is one of our most valuable assets, and we still have much to learn from each other. This book and the research on which it is based are an attempt to bring to light some of what we have lost regarding design patterns. In the process, it helps fulfill the original intent of design patterns by establishing a better mechanism for shared discussions of patterns, giving us a richer understanding of the software we produce and consume. Our community has produced a breadth of design patterns, but what we lack is depth. That is, we have a broad understanding of wide areas but only a weak ability to stitch them together into a comprehensive whole. It reminds me of the historical transition from alchemy to modern chemistry - until the periodic table came along, the collective wisdom of many intelligent researchers was precise but not strongly correlated. Arguably, the biggest impact of Dmitri Mendeleev's original periodic table was not so much that it provided a way for chemists to identify patterns between the building blocks of matter but that it provided a way to use those patterns to predict properties of then-undiscovered elements. Gallium and germanium were the first examples of this, with Mendeleev accurately describing their chemical and physical properties well before their discovery. The periodic table advanced chemistry from descriptive discipline to predictive science.
The emergence of design patterns within the software engineering community began with the publication of the seminal Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software in 1995. The Gang of Four (or GoF), Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, and John Vlissides, gathered the various collected wisdoms that had been percolating in the research and academic communities following Gamma's 1991 PhD dissertation. That work drew heavily from Christopher Alexander's earlier work in the 1960s. Alexander was a civil engineer and architect, and his work focused on finding patterns of solutions to particular sets of forces within particular contexts. His primary insight was that there are two types of design that occur within architecture, what he named unselfconscious and selfconscious.
Unselfconscious design is most often seen in so-called primitive cultures: a house design is copied faithfully, every time, and apprenticeships are used to ensure fidelity and faithfulness to that particular design. This design changes rarely, and adherence to a given form is considered the goal, primarily because the particular design is the distillation of centuries or millennia of trial and error - it works, and if it ain't broke, don't fix it. While the problem of providing people with housing is universal, the various contexts in which that problem occurs, such as rain, desert, ice, swamp, and forest, give rise to an amazing array of styles and designs, but within a particular context, a single design may be considered "the only solution," and it is frequently incredibly effective given its specific environmental needs. The design, however, is applied without much, if any, individual discretion or decision making.
Selfconscious design is a more modern invention; the designer is free to make conscious decisions at almost every turn involving style, aesthetics, and materials. This architectural freedom can be seen in the wide array of modern architecture within a given locale, city, or neighborhood. Even on your own street, you are likely to see a plethora of styles and distinctive flourishes, each the result of many conscious decisions on the part of the architect. The modern designer has a wide palette of styles to choose from, and generally speaking, the only problem is balancing the owner's aesthetics and wallet. Sure, the houses meet the basic criteria of putting a roof over the occupants' heads, but that's a pretty low bar to set when there are so many other axes on which a design can be examined. When a designer is freed to do anything, it becomes even harder to pick the effective solutions out of the nearly infinite set of inappropriate or just plain bad ones. Building codes are one way we try to limit the bad choices in housing design, but even given those as a starting point, the task is daunting. Merely reading building codes and adhering to them is not going to produce an effective work of architecture. Building codes are generic, but good architecture takes into consideration the environment at every level of detail, from global latitude and regional weather patterns to local soil grades and site-specific terrain or foliage.
You can see the results of this selfconscious design in almost any town or city. One house may be Georgian, one pseudo-Victorian, another a modern glass and steel box, or perhaps a split-level, a ranch, or any other number of styles, kinds, and types of construction, materials, and architectures. We have to ask ourselves, however, whether these designs work as optimal, or even just effective, solutions for that particular environment, for that particular context. Austin, Texas, for example, may not be the best place to build an unshaded glass-faced edifice because the sun is so intense in the summer, creating an added expense from the large increase in cooling costs. Upstate New York may not be an appropriate place for a flat roof because the weight of many feet of snow in the dead of winter adds a significant load to the room beams. The environmental context, the set of forces that create the situation in which the general problem of designing appropriate housing must be solved, is frequently ignored, and the solutions are generally only minimally satisfying or give rise to new problems that must be addressed.
It should be apparent how this applies to software engineering: we are capable of doing nearly anything that pops into our heads, even more so than the architects of physical buildings. This is the amazing strength of programming - and its Achilles heel. We can do just about anything, and usually manage to do so, but unfortunately, the subset of good things out of the set of anything is quite small, and our projects are often late, over budget, and frequently fail in ways spectacular and quiet. Rarely do we walk away from projects with a feeling of accomplishment - more often, we feel we dodged a bullet. Again. Why is this? Why, when we have decades of collective experience, and quite possibly millions of tallied person-years in the field, are we still thrashing in the weeds every time we approach a problem? Some designers and developers seem to be phenomenally able to sidestep the complexity and find the kernel of effectiveness in a design. The rest of us seem to be perpetually stuck between the unselfconsciousness of "because I was told to" and the paralysis of selfconscious design.
Alexander's work was an attempt to alleviate this problem for architects of buildings, to bring to light the disparity between the effectiveness of the primitive cultures at design and the nearly spastic try-anything approach of modern architecture. Somewhere in between is a balance to be struck. We need to find the underlying principles and general solutions that exist in unselfconscious architecture and describe them in a way that makes them applicable in a wide variety of contexts selfconsciously and with deliberate intent. The wisdom of the various attempts at solutions, hard-earned through trial and error, need to be distilled into a body of concepts that can be learned by anyone, applied in numerous places, and used as a guide for thinking about design.
This is what design patterns are - the distillation of expertise by an exuberant and robust community. This is crowdsourcing at its best. The patterns community that has grown over the decade-plus since the original GoF work is large and energetic, and our output is voluminous. Grady Booch and Celso Gonzalez have been collecting every pattern they can find in industry and academia at their website . So far, they have over 2,000 of them. The quantity of output in this community is huge, and although there are some discussions about the quality, the more pressing problem is one of scale.
Even with a fully indexed, well-curated collection of quality design patterns, there is simply too much information for a nonscholar to sift through accurately and quickly. Worse, it is incredibly difficult for a student wishing to learn the principles behind good design to do so solely from examples of good design. It is a bit like trying to learn the mathematics of aeronautical flow from inspecting aircraft on a runway. For experienced patterns practitioners who believe they have uncovered a new design pattern, there's no ready way to compare a new pattern against existing patterns to see how it relates to the established literature, and there's no way to create tooling to support this need.
What the software development community needs is a more thorough understanding of what it has at its disposal, a methodology that explains how to more precisely describe the existing design patterns and does so using components and well-defined principles that are accessible to the student or new developer. What we need is a guide to the underlying basic principles of our design patterns literature so that we can better comprehend, teach, and learn our identified best practices. This book is a foundation for that guide.
The efficiencies we gain from documenting and passing along known best practices are important, but the reason we must do so has been largely ignored in our community. To put it bluntly, we are mortal, and our young field is aging. Already we have lost a number of luminaries who established the groundwork for our industry, and many more will be gone soon. It is just a fact of life, one that we are poorly prepared to deal with as a discipline.
Worse still, software has a peculiar trait of living long past its expected lifetime. COBOL is still a force to be reckoned with in business systems around the globe. Fortran still performs much of the computation in the world's scientific modeling software. Currently shipping major high-performance computer systems have code embedded deep in their firmware that was first created three decades or more ago, in assembler or C. You can be almost certain that somewhere in the millions of lines of implementation that came with your latest personal computer acquisition lies a piece of source code that no person currently understands.
We know we should document our software; we know we should keep it up to date; we know we should commit to pen or screen the whys, the hows, and the reasons; but we also know it is a pain. It really is, so we don't do it. What we have instead is a body of knowledge that is locked within the heads of developers, that is passed along in fits and spurts, when prompted and only where necessary, frequently without any comprehensive framework of common understanding among stakeholders.
Grady Booch has popularized the phrase "tribal knowledge" for such information , and it fits all too well. It also has some rather unsettling corollaries.
Cultures that rely solely on oral tradition for the passing of knowledge are limited in both bandwidth and accuracy, and that's assuming they have a strong tradition of passing along the information. Cultures with a weak discipline for veracity and precision in information transfer leave themselves open to more rapid corruption. A strong oral tradition, however, can result in a very different outcome.
The development community has what is ultimately an oral tradition of information transfer. Although we may write down bits and pieces of what we understand, we frequently do not write down the entirety of our comprehension, and we do not keep such documentation in sync with the evolution of our systems. This document rot is pervasive, and only by asking around for further information can we hope to fill in the gaps to find out why a particular system is how it is.
This isn't always seen as a bad thing, to be honest. Agile software development methodologies prefer working code over documented code, and it's hard to argue with this viewpoint. Until it matters, of course. Agile systems have a funny way of becoming legacy systems, of growing into mature codebases with larger teams that must work in concert. Eventually, code that started as an agile effort, if it is successful, will face many of the same challenges as traditionally developed systems. Developers leave. Documentation rots. Knowledge is lost.
Software as it currently stands is not what anyone could accurately call self-documenting, and extracting the salient reasons why a thing was done in a particular way, directly from the source code, has been considered nearly impossible for an automated system. This is unfortunate, because we would like to have our cake and eat it too. We want up-to-date documentation when and where we need it, but we don't want to be burdened with it otherwise. We'd like our code to be much more self-documenting, or at least automatically documentable, but most of us don't have that luxury. So we punt and hope for the best. Meanwhile, our collective understanding of the system degrades. In the end, what we have is best described as a very weak oral tradition.
The result is that the collected tribal knowledge degrades into "tribal mythology." "Why?" is not a question that can be answered any longer, except to say, "Because we've always done it that way." I have a sneaking suspicion that if you have ever been the new hire on a development team, you're nodding in horror right now. You've had that discussion in real life, probably more times than you care to recall.
Tribal mythology is action without comprehension. It is rote without any foundation on which to state why. Other indications that tribal mythology is active in a group include the following: "Because that's how I was taught it." "I'm not really sure, but Joe says that's how its done." "Jane could have told you, but she retired last year, so just copy what's there." "Oh no, don't change that! It'll break and we won't be able to fix it." These comments exhibit a failure to comprehend the reasons behind an action, or at least an unwillingness or inability to pass the comprehension along to the listener. Over time, this lack of understanding breeds a great deal of uncertainty and fear of change. Unfortunately, it is at some level the status quo on most projects, which is ironic given that our industry is driven by innovation, change, and advancement of the state of the art.
Tribal wisdom, however, is the virtuous flip side of this tribal mythology. It is prescribed action with understanding, how accompanied by why, and is adaptable to new environments, new situations, and new problems. It transcends rote copying, and provides illumination through a comprehensive discussion of the reasons behind the action. At some point in the past, for almost every action or decision in a system, someone knew why it was done that way. Carrying those decisions forward, even the small ones, can be critical. Small decisions accrete into large systems, and small designs build into large designs. By ensuring that we have a strong tradition of knowledge retention that facilitates understanding, we build a tradition of tribal wisdom.
Tribal wisdom is what design patterns were intended to collect. Sadly, they are frequently (mis)treated as tribal mythology, by applying the how without a clear comprehension of the why.
If you haven't yet had the pleasure of running into this situation in your career, let me offer another example that may be illuminating. Recently my wife and I bought our first house, and with it, our first yard. The region we live in is renowned for its rain and consequently its moss. Now, I like moss. It's green, it takes about zero maintenance, and it makes a nice soft ground cover. It satisfies all the usual requirements for a yard, with less work than grass requires, but we had an odd situation. Part of the yard is heavily shaded and rarely, if ever, sees sun. This area is basically solid moss, with no grass or any other vegetation. Even shade-tolerant grasses can't get enough light to thrive.
Twenty feet on either side of the heavily shaded portion, however, sunlight is available on most days when the sun is actually out. Moss grows in patches through this section, but in my initial assessment, I thought it was fine. The moss and grass were coexisting nicely, and the moss wasn't choking out the grass, merely filling in the places where the grass wasn't quite so thick. In the sunniest areas, there was almost no moss but lots of grass. In the shadiest areas, there was solid moss but no grass. In the transitional regions, the two coexisted. What could be better?
Unfortunately, long-time residents who saw this situation were horrified. "You have to get rid of all the moss!" When I asked why, I was met with answers such as "Because it's not grass." "Because it's what you do." "Because it's bad for the lawn." No one could tell me, to my satisfaction, why I should get rid of the moss. It seemed to me that if I removed all of the moss, in all areas, regardless of the local micro-environment, I would have a bare spot where grass wouldn't grow in the shade. This was less than optimal.
To make matters worse, as is the case in many software projects, I had inherited a situation in which I had no idea what the previous residents had done for maintenance in the yard or why. There was no documentation to indicate what I should do for my lawn or why the yard had been left in this configuration. So I ran a couple of experiments. In the shadiest areas, I pulled up a small section of moss and seeded it with grass. In the rest of the yard, I let the moss go to see what would happen.
The grass seed in the shadiest area never thrived. Some sprouted, but it could never get established well. Applying the tribal mythology would have resulted in bare dirt in a good section of my yard, and frankly, I prefer the moss to that. It is green and lush, and it thrives in that area without maintenance. For that specific area, moss is a good ground cover solution.
In the rest of the yard with little or no shade, it turns out that moss and grass do play well together, more or less. The grass grows nicely, and the moss can't overcome it directly. Unfortunately, the moss has a side effect. In the sunniest areas, the moss acts as a protective layer for weeds to sprout underneath, safe from birds and mice who would eat the seeds or shoots, and properly moist. The moss won't choke out the grass, but the weeds definitely will. By letting the moss exist in the sunny areas, I was giving weeds a nursery to get established, and when they penetrated the moss, they thrived in the sunlight and spread rapidly. The moss also provided a protective moist layer for the roots of weeds to travel along, offering them an unhindered growth channel.
In the shadiest areas, this wasn't a problem, because there simply isn't enough sun for grass or weeds to grow well, but in the sunny areas, it was horrible. Within a couple of months, I was fighting a literal turf war with the weeds. The moss was never a problem by itself, but it set the scene for a much larger one.
And now I know the why behind removing moss from a lawn. It's not so much the moss that is the issue, it is that the moss creates a secondary microclimate that sets up a serious situation. Essentially, the moss creates a new set of forces at play that form a new context. Within that new context, that new environment, new problems arise-like weeds. Now the advice to remove the moss makes sense, at least for areas where weeds are an issue, such as the sunny areas of my yard.
Because I know the why, I can now alter my application of this knowledge according to the environmental forces. In the sunny areas, I must remove and prevent the moss so that weeds are not a later problem. In the shady areas, I choose not to because doing so would create another problem for me, leaving me with bare dirt where I'd struggle to get grass to grow well.
As it is, because I know the reasons behind the advice, I can custom fit the solution I was given-"Remove the moss"-based on the context-sunny vs. shady- and not only solve my initial problem but prevent new ones from being created. What was initially tribal mythology is now tribal wisdom that can be shared, adjusted, and applied when and where appropriate. In essence, it is the beginning of a pattern.
Art or Science?
There is no doubt that patterns are a thriving meme, and one with great utility. Entire academic conferences are now dedicated to patterns, Ackerman and Gonzalez's patterns-based engineering is becoming a defined discipline in its own right , and industry consultants are now expected to have them under their belt and be able to whip out Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams of them on the spot. Tools exist to produce, display, generate, and extract patterns. Patterns, as a collective whole, are an assumed component of the software engineering landscape. We're just not quite sure how they fit into that landscape or how they fit with each other. Two issues prevent a more comprehensive approach to patterns, and unfortunately they are ubiquitous in the industry. The first is treating patterns as frozen elements to be blindly copied, the second is confusing language-specific pattern implementations with variants of the patterns themselves.
Viewing Patterns as Rote
Ask a dozen developers to define design patterns, and you'll likely get a dozen answers. Among the more traditional "a solution to a recurring problem within a particular context" answers, you're also likely to hear phrases such as "a recipe" or "an example structure" or "some sample code," betraying a rather narrow view of what patterns provide. Patterns are intended to be mutated, to be warped and molded, to meet the needs of the particular forces at play in the context of the problem, but all too often, a developer simply copies and pastes the sample code from a patterns text or site and declares the result a successful application of the pattern. This is usually a recipe for failure instead of a recipe for producing a good design.
Pure rote copying of the structure of the pattern "because this authority says so" is a reversion to Alexander's concept of unselfconscious design. We undermine the entire purpose of design patterns when we do that. We need to be able to describe the whys behind a pattern as well as the hows. Without the understanding of the reasons that led to the description of that pattern, rote application often results in misapplication. At best, the result is a broken pattern that simply does not match the intended outcome. At worst, it injects an iatrogenic pattern into the system - one that is intended and thought to be of benefit but instead produces a malignant result that may take years to uncover. It doesn't just fail to provide the expected enhancement, it actively creates a new problem that may be worse than the original one. This is patterns as tribal mythology - action without understanding.
The traditional design pattern form, as defined in Design Patterns , explains the whys behind a pattern - motivations, applicability, and consequences - but it is up to the reader to tease out the underlying concepts that form a pattern. To some degree, these subconcepts are described in the Participants (what are the pieces) and Collaborations (how do they relate) sections for each patterns, but again, these are frequently treated by developers as checklists of pieces of the solution for rote implementation instead of as a description of the underlying concepts and abstractions that comprise a solution.
Ask a developer how important patterns are to his or her work, and frequently the answer will be based on the implementation language the developer is using. This isn't surprising. Different languages offer different strengths centered around the concepts they support and how they express them. How those concepts happen to be expressed is more often the start of flame wars between language fans, but ignoring the underlying concepts leads to much argument over nothing of particular consequence in most cases. Whether blocks are delineated by curly braces, as in the C family, or by whitespace, as with Python, isn't nearly as important as having the concept of blocks in the first place.
What this means is simply that some patterns are easier to implement in some languages than in others. In fact, some languages can make the concepts behind certain patterns so simple to implement that they're known as language features. The Visitor pattern is a good example.1 Visitor's Implementation section [21, pg. 338] says, "Visitor achieves [its goal] by using a technique called double-dispatch. It's a well-known technique. In fact, some programming languages support it directly (CLOS, for example)." What does this mean? It means that mentioning the Visitor design pattern to CLOS (Common LISP Object System) developers will leave them scratching their heads. "A pattern? For a language feature? Why?" In CLOS, Visitor is essentially built in. You don't need a pattern to tell you how to best express the concept-it's already there in the language as a basic feature. In most other languages, however, Visitor provides a clean way of expressing the same programming concept of double dispatch.
This illustrates an important point. If you mention double dispatch instead of the Visitor pattern to the same CLOS developers, they would know what you mean, how to use double dispatch, and when not to use it. Terminology, particularly shared common terminology, matters a great deal.
This is true for all languages and all patterns: some languages make certain patterns easier or trivial to implement and other patterns more difficult to realize. No language can really be considered superior to another in this case, however. One common myth is that design patterns make up for flaws in programming languages, but that isn't the case. Design patterns describe useful concepts, regardless of the language used to implement them. Whether a specific concept is baked into the feature set of a language or must be implemented from scratch is irrelevant. The concept is still being expressed in the implementation, and that is the critical observation that lets us talk about software design independently of software implementation. Design is concepts; how those concepts are made concrete in a given language is implementation.
When you get down to it, there's no reason you couldn't implement every pattern in the GoF text in plain C - but it would be extremely tedious. You'd have to build up best practices for binding data and functions into meaningful semantic units, encapsulating that data, ensuring that data is ready to use at first accessibility, and so on. This sounds like a lot of work, but these were concepts considered so important that they launched a revolution in language features to make them easier to work with. That revolution was object-oriented programming.
In object-oriented languages, those concepts are included as primary language features called classes, visibility, and constructors. Again, we can refer to the GoF: "If we assumed procedural languages, we might have included design patterns called ‘Inheritance,' ‘Encapsulation,' and ‘Polymorphism.'" The authors felt that this statement was important enough that it appears in Section 1.1 in the Introduction. And yet again, this is a fundamental point that seems lost on most developers, so let me restate it.
Patterns are language-independent concepts; they take form and become concrete solutions only when you implement them within a particular language with a given set of language features and constructs.
This means that it is a bit strange to talk about "Java design patterns," "C++ design patterns," "WebSphere design patterns," and so on, even though we all do it. It's a mildly lazy form of shorthand for what we really mean, or should mean: design patterns as implemented in Java, C++, WebSphere, and so on, regardless of language or API.2
Unfortunately, if you're like many developers who have encountered one of the multitude of books on design patterns, you may have been trained, or at least have been erroneously led to believe, that there is some ephemeral yet fundamental difference between patterns as expressed in Java and those expressed in another language such as Smalltalk. There really isn't. The concepts are the same; only the manner in which they are expressed and the ease with which a programmer can implement them in that specific language differ.
We need to focus on these when investigating design patterns, and these abstractions must be the crux of understanding patterns. Unless we make the effort to look at patterns as language-independent concepts, we are merely learning rote recipes again and losing much of what makes them so useful.
From Myth to Science
The issues described previously belie an underlying problem with design patterns as they are often conveyed, used, and understood today. All too often, we still don't know why we do what we do, even when we use design patterns in our code. By using design patterns so inflexibly, we've simply better documented a body of unselfconscious snippets without the comprehension that comes from a methodical analysis of the snippets.
We have an art. What we need is a science. After all, we throw around the terms computer science and software engineering with abandon. Treating patterns as sample code misses the point of design patterns. Design patterns enable us as an industry to experiment with those concepts and share, discuss, and refine our findings.
- You don't need to know what the Visitor pattern is right now. I selected it only because the discussion of Visitor explicitly addresses the point I'm making.
- Some design patterns are unique to specific languages, and only those languages, but those patterns are often called language idioms. In this text when we use the term design patterns, we are specifically talking about concepts that are language independent.
• • •
Disclaimer: This excerpt is from the book, "Elemental Design Patterns" by Jason McC. Smith, published by Pearson/Addison-Wesley Professional, April 2012, ISBN 0321711920, Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. For more info please visit the publisher site: http://www.informit.com/title/0321711920
Is your application too difficult to manage? Do changes take dozens of developers hundreds of hours to execute, and frequently result in downtime across all your site’s functions? It sounds like you have a monolith! A monolith is one of the three main software architectures that define most applications. Whether you’ve intentionally set out to create a monolith or not, it’s worth at least weighing the pros and cons of the different architectural approaches and deciding which one makes the most s...
Apr. 22, 2017 09:30 PM EDT Reads: 2,365
This recent research on cloud computing from the Register delves a little deeper than many of the "We're all adopting cloud!" surveys we've seen. They found that meaningful cloud adoption and the idea of the cloud-first enterprise are still not reality for many businesses. The Register's stats also show a more gradual cloud deployment trend over the past five years, not any sort of explosion. One important takeaway is that coherence across internal and external clouds is essential for IT right n...
Apr. 22, 2017 07:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,166
Software as a service (SaaS), one of the earliest and most successful cloud services, has reached mainstream status. According to Cisco, by 2019 more than four-fifths (83 percent) of all data center traffic will be based in the cloud, up from 65 percent today. The majority of this traffic will be applications. Businesses of all sizes are adopting a variety of SaaS-based services – everything from collaboration tools to mission-critical commerce-oriented applications. The rise in SaaS usage has m...
Apr. 22, 2017 06:15 PM EDT Reads: 4,527
Cloud Expo, Inc. has announced today that Aruna Ravichandran, vice president of DevOps Product and Solutions Marketing at CA Technologies, has been named co-conference chair of DevOps at Cloud Expo 2017. The @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo New York will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York, and @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo Silicon Valley will take place Oct. 31-Nov. 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Apr. 22, 2017 05:30 PM EDT Reads: 2,133
To more closely examine the variety of ways in which IT departments around the world are integrating cloud services, and the effect hybrid IT has had on their organizations and IT job roles, SolarWinds recently released the SolarWinds IT Trends Report 2017: Portrait of a Hybrid Organization. This annual study consists of survey-based research that explores significant trends, developments, and movements related to and directly affecting IT and IT professionals.
Apr. 22, 2017 02:45 PM EDT Reads: 932
Developers want to create better apps faster. Static clouds are giving way to scalable systems, with dynamic resource allocation and application monitoring. You won't hear that chant from users on any picket line, but helping developers to create better apps faster is the mission of Lee Atchison, principal cloud architect and advocate at New Relic Inc., based in San Francisco. His singular job is to understand and drive the industry in the areas of cloud architecture, microservices, scalability ...
Apr. 22, 2017 12:45 PM EDT Reads: 3,099
Back in February of 2017, Andrew Clay Schafer of Pivotal tweeted the following: “seriously tho, the whole software industry is stuck on deployment when we desperately need architecture and telemetry.” Intrigue in a 140 characters. For me, I hear Andrew saying, “we’re jumping to step 5 before we’ve successfully completed steps 1-4.”
Apr. 22, 2017 09:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,153
The proper isolation of resources is essential for multi-tenant environments. The traditional approach to isolate resources is, however, rather heavyweight. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Igor Drobiazko, co-founder of elastic.io, drew upon his own experience with operating a Docker container-based infrastructure on a large scale and present a lightweight solution for resource isolation using microservices. He also discussed the implementation of microservices in data and application integrat...
Apr. 22, 2017 05:45 AM EDT Reads: 5,816
We'd all like to fulfill that "find a job you love and you'll never work a day in your life" cliché. But in reality, every job (even if it's our dream job) comes with its downsides. For you, the constant fight against shadow IT might get on your last nerves. For your developer coworkers, infrastructure management is the roadblock that stands in the way of focusing on coding. As you watch more and more applications and processes move to the cloud, technology is coming to developers' rescue-most r...
Apr. 22, 2017 04:00 AM EDT Reads: 3,884
2016 has been an amazing year for Docker and the container industry. We had 3 major releases of Docker engine this year , and tremendous increase in usage. The community has been following along and contributing amazing Docker resources to help you learn and get hands-on experience. Here’s some of the top read and viewed content for the year. Of course releases are always really popular, particularly when they fit requests we had from the community.
Apr. 22, 2017 03:45 AM EDT Reads: 3,364
Enterprise architects are increasingly adopting multi-cloud strategies as they seek to utilize existing data center assets, leverage the advantages of cloud computing and avoid cloud vendor lock-in. This requires a globally aware traffic management strategy that can monitor infrastructure health across data centers and end-user experience globally, while responding to control changes and system specification at the speed of today’s DevOps teams. In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Josh Gray, Chie...
Apr. 22, 2017 03:30 AM EDT Reads: 2,897
Keeping pace with advancements in software delivery processes and tooling is taxing even for the most proficient organizations. Point tools, platforms, open source and the increasing adoption of private and public cloud services requires strong engineering rigor – all in the face of developer demands to use the tools of choice. As Agile has settled in as a mainstream practice, now DevOps has emerged as the next wave to improve software delivery speed and output. To make DevOps work, organization...
Apr. 22, 2017 12:00 AM EDT Reads: 8,533
Today we can collect lots and lots of performance data. We build beautiful dashboards and even have fancy query languages to access and transform the data. Still performance data is a secret language only a couple of people understand. The more business becomes digital the more stakeholders are interested in this data including how it relates to business. Some of these people have never used a monitoring tool before. They have a question on their mind like “How is my application doing” but no id...
Apr. 21, 2017 11:45 PM EDT Reads: 6,623
In large enterprises, environment provisioning and server provisioning account for a significant portion of the operations team's time. This often leaves users frustrated while they wait for these services. For instance, server provisioning can take several days and sometimes even weeks. At the same time, digital transformation means the need for server and environment provisioning is constantly growing. Organizations are adopting agile methodologies and software teams are increasing the speed ...
Apr. 21, 2017 07:45 PM EDT Reads: 3,062
Even for the most seasoned IT pros, the cloud is complicated. It can be difficult just to wrap your head around the many terms and acronyms that make up the cloud dictionary-not to mention actually mastering the technology. Unfortunately, complicated cloud terms are often combined to the point that their meanings are lost in a sea of conflicting opinions. Two terms that are used interchangeably (but shouldn't be) are hybrid cloud and multicloud. If you want to be the cloud expert your company ne...
Apr. 21, 2017 04:15 PM EDT Reads: 2,136
In his general session at 19th Cloud Expo, Manish Dixit, VP of Product and Engineering at Dice, discussed how Dice leverages data insights and tools to help both tech professionals and recruiters better understand how skills relate to each other and which skills are in high demand using interactive visualizations and salary indicator tools to maximize earning potential. Manish Dixit is VP of Product and Engineering at Dice. As the leader of the Product, Engineering and Data Sciences team at D...
Apr. 21, 2017 02:45 AM EDT Reads: 5,569
In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Scott Davis, CTO of Embotics, will discuss how automation can provide the dynamic management required to cost-effectively deliver microservices and container solutions at scale. He will discuss how flexible automation is the key to effectively bridging and seamlessly coordinating both IT and developer needs for component orchestration across disparate clouds – an increasingly important requirement at today’s multi-cloud enterprise.
Apr. 19, 2017 06:00 AM EDT Reads: 4,211
SYS-CON Events announced today that CollabNet, a global leader in enterprise software development, release automation and DevOps solutions, will be a Bronze Sponsor of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, taking place from June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. CollabNet offers a broad range of solutions with the mission of helping modern organizations deliver quality software at speed. The company’s latest innovation, the DevOps Lifecycle Manager (DLM), supports Value S...
Apr. 18, 2017 03:30 PM EDT Reads: 4,226
The human body is the most complex machine ever created! With a complex network of interconnected organs, millions of cells and the most advanced processor, human body is the most automated system in this planet. In this article, we will draw comparisons between working of a human body to that of a datacenter. We will learn how self-defense and self-healing capabilities of our human body is similar to firewalls and intelligent monitoring capabilities in our datacenters. We will draw parallels b...
Apr. 16, 2017 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,668
Cloud adoption is often driven by a desire to increase efficiency, boost agility and save money. All too often, however, the reality involves unpredictable cost spikes and lack of oversight due to resource limitations. In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Joe Kinsella, CTO and Founder of CloudHealth Technologies, will tackle the question: “How do you build a fully optimized cloud?” He will examine: Why TCO is critical to achieving cloud success – and why attendees should be thinking holisticall...
Apr. 16, 2017 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,753