Click here to close now.




















Welcome!

Microservices Expo Authors: Roger Strukhoff, Tom Lounibos, Elizabeth White, Joe Pruitt, Pat Romanski

Related Topics: Cloud Security, Microservices Expo, @CloudExpo

Cloud Security: Article

Information Security from a Business Perspective

It must be designed and implemented as a core ingredient of the business strategy

As enterprises struggle to remain profitable in an ever-changing risk environment, the current economic crisis has elevated the need for effective business risk management. Information security is a key parameter that affects business risk. The academic definition of information security is the "preservation of confidentiality, integrity and availability of information." [1] Confidentiality is the preservation of secrecy of information (e.g., business reports, technical designs or financial projections) by ensuring that viewing is conducted solely by authorized people. Integrity is ensuring that information is accurate and consistent and has not been manipulated. Availability ensures that information is accessible to authorized people when needed.

Historically, information security has been addressed primarily as a technical issue. Preventive controls, such as firewalls, user access control mechanisms, encryption of data and communications, digital signatures, data backup systems, and detective controls, such as intrusion detection systems or security monitoring platforms, have formed the basic components of security architecture. Often, the technical controls are complemented by a set of security policies, procedures and guidelines aimed at controlling the actions of personnel.

This approach, though, has proven to be insufficient. Security incidents continue to rise and security problems remain unsolved while information security experts have been challenged to effectively communicate the value of information security to enterprise management. The root cause of these problems may be the definition of information security itself. There is a lack of consistency as each sector, industry and even enterprise has had to define information security uniquely, based on very specific business needs. This lack of consistency has contributed to a lack of understanding and a lack of appreciation for the value of information security.

Information Security Defined
To define information security in an organisation, one must understand its business objectives, identify stakeholders and link them to information protection attributes. Organisations have to be trusted to achieve customer acquisition and retention, which directly affect their revenue. This trust is a key success factor that is directly related to:

  • Business integrity-Each business decision is conducted as described in its official literature. It is fair to the customer and inspires trust. Information integrity (avoiding data manipulation) is a key information security component related to customer trust.
  • Customer asset protection-Customers need to be confident that their money, credit card numbers and bank account numbers are safe, especially in online transactions, where their funds are essentially electronic. Customers need to trust an organisation to secure their financial assets; confidentiality, integrity and availability are crucial security parameters.
  • Customer privacy-Customers provide their personally identifiable information (PII) to a whole host of ‘trusted' sources. As in customer asset protection, trust in the business is important for making them feel comfortable with sharing such information. Trust is particularly important when dealing with large amounts of money because customers have to feel safe and also that their personal data have been protected.

Providing services to the public also has societal and political facets. Businesses must adhere to a governmental regulatory and legal framework. The provision of secure and fair outlets to citizens is a matter of social responsibility. Moreover, the government is a shareholder of business (directly or indirectly through taxing); thus, business success affects the corresponding governmental revenue.

The aforementioned facts are clarified in relation to information security when the drivers of shareholders' trust are studied in more detail. For example:

  • Each licensed business has to comply with rules and terms of the license, which in turn have general or more detailed information protection requirements. These vary from general statements for fairness, antifraud rules and service availability requirements to more detailed technical controls such as network security rules, operating security policies or certification requirements. Shareholders need to be confident that a business complies with the license obligations and, more generally, the legal and regulatory framework, since this is a main corporate viability factor.
  • In competitive business environments, information security acts as a competitive advantage that, in turn, ensures customer acquisition. Shareholders trust a business if it operates as a competitive corporation, and due to the importance of protecting its information from breaches, information security becomes a competitive parameter.

In relation to the business role of information security, drivers should be:

-Shareholders' trust:

. Corporate viability, which is driven by compliance of license terms

. Competitive advantage, which ensures customer acquisition

. Brand name value preservation, which ensures customer retention

. Legal and regulatory compliance (e.g., the integrity of financial records and PII protection)

- Customers' trust:

. Business integrity

. Service availability

. Protection of the confidentiality of customers' sensitive information

Using this definition of information security for the business sector, a holistic approach is required for addressing the information security requirements of each unique organisation. This requires a detailed business analysis for embedding information security into the specific business processes and also for addressing the human factor and minimizing the uncertainty it introduces.  International security standards provide a solid base for information security from a business perspective.

THE INFORMATION SECURITY STANDARDS LANDSCAPE
In 2006, the Security and Risk Management Committee of the World Lottery Association (WLA)2 published the most recent version of its Security Control Standard (SCS). This standard describes a number of information security controls (technical and procedural) tailored to the lottery sector. Indicatively, it includes rules regarding the management of lottery draws and protection of prize money and Internet gaming systems.

The Security Control Standard (SCS) is an extension of the globally recognized information security standard ISO 27001 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which is related to the establishment of information security management systems (ISMSs). Such systems provide the framework for managing information security from planning to implementation, monitoring and improvement.

ISACA has published a set of information technology (IT) auditing standards and the Risk IT:  Based on COBIT framework, which provides a set of guiding principles for effective management of IT risk. Risk IT complements COBIT, a comprehensive framework developed by ISACA for the governance and control of business-driven, IT-based solutions and services. In 2009, ISACA published An Introduction to the Business Model for Information Security, the first publication  released under the Business Model for Information Security (BMIS), which addresses information security from a business perspective, and in 2010, the full model was published as The Business Model for Information Security.

Other standards include the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS), a set of requirements for enhancing payment account data security, and the Special Publications (800 series) of the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), which are documents of general interest to the computer security community. The aforementioned standards provide an indicative view of the information security standards landscape. Other standardization bodies and associations provide their own guidelines in the field. In addition, technical security best practices of system vendors provide additional guidelines.

The modern business sector has to select the information security standards to use as a basis for its security architecture, and it must customize this selection according to its specific business needs.

 

Case Example from the World Lottery Association
In this particular example the ‘customer', so defined by the business model, is identified as the ‘player'. In this situation the definition of information security, specific to the lottery model, also becomes altered. ‘Business integrity' becomes ‘game integrity', ‘customer asset protection' becomes ‘player asset protection', and ‘customer privacy' is therefore ‘player privacy'. In terms of security the needs of a customer and player are much the same; however, due to the proactive nature of a ‘player', whose object is to win prizes rather than conduct typical transactions, the model of risk management must be appropriately tailored. Trust is again the key factor. When a member of the public makes the transition from ordinary citizen to ‘player' on a gaming site, it is vital to ensure that they are aware of the official rules of the specific game. Payouts and prizes, and the procedure for claiming them, must fully conform to the official literature set out by the gaming site. There should be no cases of ambiguity as this is a sure-fire way of discrediting a brand and losing player trust and thus, their custom.

To become an online participant in lotteries and other gaming sites an individual must disclose their sensitive details; this is very often the only means by which one can become a ‘player'. Being able to trust a lottery or gaming site with sensitive details should, therefore, be the foremost concern of a player as there is little point in worrying about payout procedure when compromised details could mean a bigger loss than any potential gain.

The WLA's Security Control Standard takes the above factors into consideration- perfectly illustrating how the security of data can be adapted to a unique business situation.

BASIC PROCESSES
Studying the information security standards horizontally, a number of basic processes/steps that lead to the identification of information security requirements are:

  • Step 1: Business impact analysis-Each business process is recorded and analyzed in terms of business impact from the realization of a possible security threat.

The business must answer a number of questions to calculate the impact of security breaches, including:

- How much would this cost the business in monetary terms?

- What would be the indirect costs (e.g., from reputation loss) if information is sold?

- What would the legal implications be?

Business processes are then prioritized based on an impact scale that identifies the most critical issues.

  • Step 2: Risk analysis-During this process, the possibility for the occurrence of a security incident is calculated, based on a database of security weaknesses. The risk analysis takes into account technical and procedural parameters, such as:

- Are there technical controls in place to safeguard customer data?

- Do procedures exist to complement the technical security controls?

  • Step 3: Risk management-The result of the risk analysis is a prioritization of risk in relation to the impact level (the result of the business impact analysis) and the identification of possible security measures for addressing the risk. The risk management process-the selection of appropriate security measures for addressing the risk or for risk transferring or acceptance-is determined by the management of the organisation.
  • Step 4: ISMS implementation-After the controls have been selected, they should be correlated under a common information security management system (ISMS). This correlation requires deep understanding of the operation of the organisation; consideration of human, cultural, technical, business and external factors; and continuous improvements.

Business Model for Information Security
One of the most recent information security frameworks that addresses information security from a business point of view is ISACA's BMIS.

The following definitions of the BMIS elements (derived from An Introduction to the Business Model for Information Security) are necessary for understanding how BMIS works:

  • Organization design and strategy-An organization is a network of people, assets and processes interacting with each other in defined roles and working toward a common goal.
  • People-The people element represents the human resources and the security issues that surround them. It defines who implements (through design) each part of the strategy. It represents a human collective and must take into account values, behaviors and biases.
  • Process-Process includes formal and informal mechanisms (large and small, simple and complex) to get things done.
  • Technology-The technology element is composed of all of the tools, applications and infrastructure that make processes more efficient.

To understand the operation of BMIS in practice, it is important to study the links connecting organization design and strategy, people, process, and technology.

CONCLUSION
Information security will be understood, provide added value and effectively contribute to the operation of an organization only if it is designed and implemented as a core ingredient of the business strategy. Stakeholder, shareholder and customer trust are the key ingredients of information security; organizations from all sectors should identify such key ingredients in order to provide a business definition to information security.

More Stories By Christos K. Dimitriadis

Christos K. Dimitriadis, Ph.D., CISA, CISM, is international vice president of ISACA and head of information security at INTRALOT S.A, a Greece-based multinational supplier of integrated gaming and transaction processing systems.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@MicroservicesExpo Stories
This week, I joined SOASTA as Senior Vice President of Performance Analytics. Given my background in cloud computing and distributed systems operations — you may have read my blogs on CNET or GigaOm — this may surprise you, but I want to explain why this is the perfect time to take on this opportunity with this team. In fact, that’s probably the best way to break this down. To explain why I’d leave the world of infrastructure and code for the world of data and analytics, let’s explore the timing...
The Software Defined Data Center (SDDC), which enables organizations to seamlessly run in a hybrid cloud model (public + private cloud), is here to stay. IDC estimates that the software-defined networking market will be valued at $3.7 billion by 2016. Security is a key component and benefit of the SDDC, and offers an opportunity to build security 'from the ground up' and weave it into the environment from day one. In his session at 16th Cloud Expo, Reuven Harrison, CTO and Co-Founder of Tufin,...
You often hear the two titles of "DevOps" and "Immutable Infrastructure" used independently. In his session at DevOps Summit, John Willis, Technical Evangelist for Docker, covered the union between the two topics and why this is important. He provided an overview of Immutable Infrastructure then showed how an Immutable Continuous Delivery pipeline can be applied as a best practice for "DevOps." He ended the session with some interesting case study examples.
JavaScript is primarily a client-based dynamic scripting language most commonly used within web browsers as client-side scripts to interact with the user, browser, and communicate asynchronously to servers. If you have been part of any web-based development, odds are you have worked with JavaScript in one form or another. In this article, I'll focus on the aspects of JavaScript that are relevant within the Node.js environment.
Discussions about cloud computing are evolving into discussions about enterprise IT in general. As enterprises increasingly migrate toward their own unique clouds, new issues such as the use of containers and microservices emerge to keep things interesting. In this Power Panel at 16th Cloud Expo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists addressed the state of cloud computing today, and what enterprise IT professionals need to know about how the latest topics and trends affect t...
SYS-CON Events announced today that HPM Networks will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For 20 years, HPM Networks has been integrating technology solutions that solve complex business challenges. HPM Networks has designed solutions for both SMB and enterprise customers throughout the San Francisco Bay Area.
Summer is finally here and it’s time for a DevOps summer vacation. From San Francisco to New York City, our top summer conferences list is going to continuously deliver you to the summer destinations of your dreams. These DevOps parties are hitting all the hottest summer trends with Microservices, Agile, Continuous Delivery, DevSecOps, and even Continuous Testing. Move over Kanye. These are the top 5 Summer DevOps Conferences of 2015.
Countless business models have spawned from the IaaS industry. Resell Web hosting, blogs, public cloud, and on and on. With the overwhelming amount of tools available to us, it's sometimes easy to overlook that many of them are just new skins of resources we've had for a long time. In his General Session at 16th Cloud Expo, Phil Jackson, Lead Technology Evangelist at SoftLayer, broke down what we've got to work with and discuss the benefits and pitfalls to discover how we can best use them to d...
Puppet Labs has published their annual State of DevOps report and it is loaded with interesting information as always. Last year’s report brought home the point that DevOps was becoming widely accepted in the enterprise. This year’s report further validates that point and provides us with some interesting insights from surveying a wide variety of companies in different phases of their DevOps journey.
Containers are changing the security landscape for software development and deployment. As with any security solutions, security approaches that work for developers, operations personnel and security professionals is a requirement. In his session at DevOps Summit, Kevin Gilpin, CTO and Co-Founder of Conjur, will discuss various security considerations for container-based infrastructure and related DevOps workflows.
Microservices are hot. And for good reason. To compete in today’s fast-moving application economy, it makes sense to break large, monolithic applications down into discrete functional units. Such an approach makes it easier to update and add functionalities (text-messaging a customer, calculating sales tax for a specific geography, etc.) and get those updates / adds into production fast. In fact, some would argue that microservices are a prerequisite for true continuous delivery. But is it too...
What we really mean to ask is whether microservices architecture is SOA done right. But then, of course, we’d have to figure out what microservices architecture was. And if you think defining SOA is difficult, pinning down microservices architecture is unquestionably frying pan into fire time. Given my years at ZapThink, fighting to help architects understand what Service-Oriented Architecture really was and how to get it right, it’s no surprise that many people ask me this question.
One of the ways to increase scalability of services – and applications – is to go “stateless.” The reasons for this are many, but in general by eliminating the mapping between a single client and a single app or service instance you eliminate the need for resources to manage state in the app (overhead) and improve the distributability (I can make up words if I want) of requests across a pool of instances. The latter occurs because sessions don’t need to hang out and consume resources that could ...
"ProfitBricks was founded in 2010 and we are the painless cloud - and we are also the Infrastructure as a Service 2.0 company," noted Achim Weiss, Chief Executive Officer and Co-Founder of ProfitBricks, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 16th Cloud Expo, held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City.
Approved this February by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), HTTP/2 is the first major update to HTTP since 1999, when HTTP/1.1 was standardized. Designed with performance in mind, one of the biggest goals of HTTP/2 implementation is to decrease latency while maintaining a high-level compatibility with HTTP/1.1. Though not all testing activities will be impacted by the new protocol, it's important for testers to be aware of any changes moving forward.
The Internet of Things. Cloud. Big Data. Real-Time Analytics. To those who do not quite understand what these phrases mean (and let’s be honest, that’s likely to be a large portion of the world), words like “IoT” and “Big Data” are just buzzwords. The truth is, the Internet of Things encompasses much more than jargon and predictions of connected devices. According to Parker Trewin, Senior Director of Content and Communications of Aria Systems, “IoT is big news because it ups the ante: Reach out ...
"We got started as search consultants. On the services side of the business we have help organizations save time and save money when they hit issues that everyone more or less hits when their data grows," noted Otis Gospodnetić, Founder of Sematext, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @DevOpsSummit, held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City.
"We've just seen a huge influx of new partners coming into our ecosystem, and partners building unique offerings on top of our API set," explained Seth Bostock, Chief Executive Officer at IndependenceIT, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 16th Cloud Expo, held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City.
Learn how to solve the problem of keeping files in sync between multiple Docker containers. In his session at 16th Cloud Expo, Aaron Brongersma, Senior Infrastructure Engineer at Modulus, discussed using rsync, GlusterFS, EBS and Bit Torrent Sync. He broke down the tools that are needed to help create a seamless user experience. In the end, can we have an environment where we can easily move Docker containers, servers, and volumes without impacting our applications? He shared his results so yo...
Explosive growth in connected devices. Enormous amounts of data for collection and analysis. Critical use of data for split-second decision making and actionable information. All three are factors in making the Internet of Things a reality. Yet, any one factor would have an IT organization pondering its infrastructure strategy. How should your organization enhance its IT framework to enable an Internet of Things implementation? In his session at @ThingsExpo, James Kirkland, Red Hat's Chief Arch...