|By Christos K. Dimitriadis||
|February 9, 2011 06:00 AM EST||
As enterprises struggle to remain profitable in an ever-changing risk environment, the current economic crisis has elevated the need for effective business risk management. Information security is a key parameter that affects business risk. The academic definition of information security is the "preservation of confidentiality, integrity and availability of information."  Confidentiality is the preservation of secrecy of information (e.g., business reports, technical designs or financial projections) by ensuring that viewing is conducted solely by authorized people. Integrity is ensuring that information is accurate and consistent and has not been manipulated. Availability ensures that information is accessible to authorized people when needed.
Historically, information security has been addressed primarily as a technical issue. Preventive controls, such as firewalls, user access control mechanisms, encryption of data and communications, digital signatures, data backup systems, and detective controls, such as intrusion detection systems or security monitoring platforms, have formed the basic components of security architecture. Often, the technical controls are complemented by a set of security policies, procedures and guidelines aimed at controlling the actions of personnel.
This approach, though, has proven to be insufficient. Security incidents continue to rise and security problems remain unsolved while information security experts have been challenged to effectively communicate the value of information security to enterprise management. The root cause of these problems may be the definition of information security itself. There is a lack of consistency as each sector, industry and even enterprise has had to define information security uniquely, based on very specific business needs. This lack of consistency has contributed to a lack of understanding and a lack of appreciation for the value of information security.
Information Security Defined
To define information security in an organisation, one must understand its business objectives, identify stakeholders and link them to information protection attributes. Organisations have to be trusted to achieve customer acquisition and retention, which directly affect their revenue. This trust is a key success factor that is directly related to:
- Business integrity-Each business decision is conducted as described in its official literature. It is fair to the customer and inspires trust. Information integrity (avoiding data manipulation) is a key information security component related to customer trust.
- Customer asset protection-Customers need to be confident that their money, credit card numbers and bank account numbers are safe, especially in online transactions, where their funds are essentially electronic. Customers need to trust an organisation to secure their financial assets; confidentiality, integrity and availability are crucial security parameters.
- Customer privacy-Customers provide their personally identifiable information (PII) to a whole host of ‘trusted' sources. As in customer asset protection, trust in the business is important for making them feel comfortable with sharing such information. Trust is particularly important when dealing with large amounts of money because customers have to feel safe and also that their personal data have been protected.
Providing services to the public also has societal and political facets. Businesses must adhere to a governmental regulatory and legal framework. The provision of secure and fair outlets to citizens is a matter of social responsibility. Moreover, the government is a shareholder of business (directly or indirectly through taxing); thus, business success affects the corresponding governmental revenue.
The aforementioned facts are clarified in relation to information security when the drivers of shareholders' trust are studied in more detail. For example:
- Each licensed business has to comply with rules and terms of the license, which in turn have general or more detailed information protection requirements. These vary from general statements for fairness, antifraud rules and service availability requirements to more detailed technical controls such as network security rules, operating security policies or certification requirements. Shareholders need to be confident that a business complies with the license obligations and, more generally, the legal and regulatory framework, since this is a main corporate viability factor.
- In competitive business environments, information security acts as a competitive advantage that, in turn, ensures customer acquisition. Shareholders trust a business if it operates as a competitive corporation, and due to the importance of protecting its information from breaches, information security becomes a competitive parameter.
In relation to the business role of information security, drivers should be:
. Corporate viability, which is driven by compliance of license terms
. Competitive advantage, which ensures customer acquisition
. Brand name value preservation, which ensures customer retention
. Legal and regulatory compliance (e.g., the integrity of financial records and PII protection)
- Customers' trust:
. Business integrity
. Service availability
. Protection of the confidentiality of customers' sensitive information
Using this definition of information security for the business sector, a holistic approach is required for addressing the information security requirements of each unique organisation. This requires a detailed business analysis for embedding information security into the specific business processes and also for addressing the human factor and minimizing the uncertainty it introduces. International security standards provide a solid base for information security from a business perspective.
THE INFORMATION SECURITY STANDARDS LANDSCAPE
In 2006, the Security and Risk Management Committee of the World Lottery Association (WLA)2 published the most recent version of its Security Control Standard (SCS). This standard describes a number of information security controls (technical and procedural) tailored to the lottery sector. Indicatively, it includes rules regarding the management of lottery draws and protection of prize money and Internet gaming systems.
The Security Control Standard (SCS) is an extension of the globally recognized information security standard ISO 27001 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which is related to the establishment of information security management systems (ISMSs). Such systems provide the framework for managing information security from planning to implementation, monitoring and improvement.
ISACA has published a set of information technology (IT) auditing standards and the Risk IT: Based on COBIT framework, which provides a set of guiding principles for effective management of IT risk. Risk IT complements COBIT, a comprehensive framework developed by ISACA for the governance and control of business-driven, IT-based solutions and services. In 2009, ISACA published An Introduction to the Business Model for Information Security, the first publication released under the Business Model for Information Security (BMIS), which addresses information security from a business perspective, and in 2010, the full model was published as The Business Model for Information Security.
Other standards include the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS), a set of requirements for enhancing payment account data security, and the Special Publications (800 series) of the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), which are documents of general interest to the computer security community. The aforementioned standards provide an indicative view of the information security standards landscape. Other standardization bodies and associations provide their own guidelines in the field. In addition, technical security best practices of system vendors provide additional guidelines.
The modern business sector has to select the information security standards to use as a basis for its security architecture, and it must customize this selection according to its specific business needs.
Case Example from the World Lottery Association
In this particular example the ‘customer', so defined by the business model, is identified as the ‘player'. In this situation the definition of information security, specific to the lottery model, also becomes altered. ‘Business integrity' becomes ‘game integrity', ‘customer asset protection' becomes ‘player asset protection', and ‘customer privacy' is therefore ‘player privacy'. In terms of security the needs of a customer and player are much the same; however, due to the proactive nature of a ‘player', whose object is to win prizes rather than conduct typical transactions, the model of risk management must be appropriately tailored. Trust is again the key factor. When a member of the public makes the transition from ordinary citizen to ‘player' on a gaming site, it is vital to ensure that they are aware of the official rules of the specific game. Payouts and prizes, and the procedure for claiming them, must fully conform to the official literature set out by the gaming site. There should be no cases of ambiguity as this is a sure-fire way of discrediting a brand and losing player trust and thus, their custom.
To become an online participant in lotteries and other gaming sites an individual must disclose their sensitive details; this is very often the only means by which one can become a ‘player'. Being able to trust a lottery or gaming site with sensitive details should, therefore, be the foremost concern of a player as there is little point in worrying about payout procedure when compromised details could mean a bigger loss than any potential gain.
The WLA's Security Control Standard takes the above factors into consideration- perfectly illustrating how the security of data can be adapted to a unique business situation.
Studying the information security standards horizontally, a number of basic processes/steps that lead to the identification of information security requirements are:
- Step 1: Business impact analysis-Each business process is recorded and analyzed in terms of business impact from the realization of a possible security threat.
The business must answer a number of questions to calculate the impact of security breaches, including:
- How much would this cost the business in monetary terms?
- What would be the indirect costs (e.g., from reputation loss) if information is sold?
- What would the legal implications be?
Business processes are then prioritized based on an impact scale that identifies the most critical issues.
- Step 2: Risk analysis-During this process, the possibility for the occurrence of a security incident is calculated, based on a database of security weaknesses. The risk analysis takes into account technical and procedural parameters, such as:
- Are there technical controls in place to safeguard customer data?
- Do procedures exist to complement the technical security controls?
- Step 3: Risk management-The result of the risk analysis is a prioritization of risk in relation to the impact level (the result of the business impact analysis) and the identification of possible security measures for addressing the risk. The risk management process-the selection of appropriate security measures for addressing the risk or for risk transferring or acceptance-is determined by the management of the organisation.
- Step 4: ISMS implementation-After the controls have been selected, they should be correlated under a common information security management system (ISMS). This correlation requires deep understanding of the operation of the organisation; consideration of human, cultural, technical, business and external factors; and continuous improvements.
Business Model for Information Security
One of the most recent information security frameworks that addresses information security from a business point of view is ISACA's BMIS.
The following definitions of the BMIS elements (derived from An Introduction to the Business Model for Information Security) are necessary for understanding how BMIS works:
- Organization design and strategy-An organization is a network of people, assets and processes interacting with each other in defined roles and working toward a common goal.
- People-The people element represents the human resources and the security issues that surround them. It defines who implements (through design) each part of the strategy. It represents a human collective and must take into account values, behaviors and biases.
- Process-Process includes formal and informal mechanisms (large and small, simple and complex) to get things done.
- Technology-The technology element is composed of all of the tools, applications and infrastructure that make processes more efficient.
To understand the operation of BMIS in practice, it is important to study the links connecting organization design and strategy, people, process, and technology.
Information security will be understood, provide added value and effectively contribute to the operation of an organization only if it is designed and implemented as a core ingredient of the business strategy. Stakeholder, shareholder and customer trust are the key ingredients of information security; organizations from all sectors should identify such key ingredients in order to provide a business definition to information security.
In recent years, containers have taken the world by storm. Companies of all sizes and industries have realized the massive benefits of containers, such as unprecedented mobility, higher hardware utilization, and increased flexibility and agility; however, many containers today are non-persistent. Containers without persistence miss out on many benefits, and in many cases simply pass the responsibility of persistence onto other infrastructure, adding additional complexity.
Mar. 1, 2017 02:30 PM EST Reads: 1,967
20th Cloud Expo, taking place June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy.
Mar. 1, 2017 02:15 PM EST Reads: 371
Building custom add-ons does not need to be limited to the ideas you see on a marketplace. In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Sukhbir Dhillon, CEO and founder of Addteq, will go over some adventures they faced in developing integrations using Atlassian SDK and other technologies/platforms and how it has enabled development teams to experiment with newer paradigms like Serverless and newer features of Atlassian SDKs. In this presentation, you will be taken on a journey of Add-On and Integration...
Mar. 1, 2017 01:41 PM EST Reads: 168
SYS-CON Events announced today that Outlyer, a monitoring service for DevOps and operations teams, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Outlyer is a monitoring service for DevOps and Operations teams running Cloud, SaaS, Microservices and IoT deployments. Designed for today's dynamic environments that need beyond cloud-scale monitoring, we make monitoring effortless so you...
Mar. 1, 2017 01:30 PM EST Reads: 2,792
@DevOpsSummit at Cloud taking place June 6-8, 2017, at Javits Center, New York City, is co-located with the 20th International Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The widespread success of cloud computing is driving the DevOps revolution in enterprise IT. Now as never before, development teams must communicate and collaborate in a dynamic, 24/7/365 environment. There is no time to wait for long developm...
Mar. 1, 2017 01:15 PM EST Reads: 2,301
Cloud Expo, Inc. has announced today that Andi Mann and Aruna Ravichandran have been named Co-Chairs of @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo 2017. The @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo New York will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, New York, and @DevOpsSummit at Cloud Expo Silicon Valley will take place Oct. 31-Nov. 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Mar. 1, 2017 01:15 PM EST Reads: 2,780
SYS-CON Events announced today that CA Technologies has been named “Platinum Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and the 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. CA Technologies helps customers succeed in a future where every business – from apparel to energy – is being rewritten by software. From ...
Mar. 1, 2017 11:45 AM EST Reads: 3,109
All clouds are not equal. To succeed in a DevOps context, organizations should plan to develop/deploy apps across a choice of on-premise and public clouds simultaneously depending on the business needs. This is where the concept of the Lean Cloud comes in - resting on the idea that you often need to relocate your app modules over their life cycles for both innovation and operational efficiency in the cloud. In his session at @DevOpsSummit at19th Cloud Expo, Valentin (Val) Bercovici, CTO of Soli...
Mar. 1, 2017 11:45 AM EST Reads: 1,729
DevOps is often described as a combination of technology and culture. Without both, DevOps isn't complete. However, applying the culture to outdated technology is a recipe for disaster; as response times grow and connections between teams are delayed by technology, the culture will die. A Nutanix Enterprise Cloud has many benefits that provide the needed base for a true DevOps paradigm. In his general session at 20th Cloud Expo, Chris Brown, a Solutions Marketing Manager at Nutanix, will explore...
Mar. 1, 2017 11:30 AM EST Reads: 2,097
Buzzword alert: Microservices and IoT at a DevOps conference? What could possibly go wrong? In this Power Panel at DevOps Summit, moderated by Jason Bloomberg, the leading expert on architecting agility for the enterprise and president of Intellyx, panelists peeled away the buzz and discuss the important architectural principles behind implementing IoT solutions for the enterprise. As remote IoT devices and sensors become increasingly intelligent, they become part of our distributed cloud enviro...
Mar. 1, 2017 11:15 AM EST Reads: 6,615
In today's enterprise, digital transformation represents organizational change even more so than technology change, as customer preferences and behavior drive end-to-end transformation across lines of business as well as IT. To capitalize on the ubiquitous disruption driving this transformation, companies must be able to innovate at an increasingly rapid pace. Traditional approaches for driving innovation are now woefully inadequate for keeping up with the breadth of disruption and change facing...
Mar. 1, 2017 10:45 AM EST Reads: 8,518
In his session at @DevOpsSummit at 19th Cloud Expo, Robert Doyle, lead architect at eCube Systems, will examine the issues and need for an agile infrastructure and show the advantages of capturing developer knowledge in an exportable file for migration into production. He will introduce the use of NXTmonitor, a next-generation DevOps tool that captures application environments, dependencies and start/stop procedures in a portable configuration file with an easy-to-use GUI. In addition to captur...
Mar. 1, 2017 09:45 AM EST Reads: 3,864
SYS-CON Events announced today that Catchpoint Systems, Inc., a provider of innovative web and infrastructure monitoring solutions, has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's DevOps Summit at 18th Cloud Expo New York, which will take place June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Catchpoint is a leading Digital Performance Analytics company that provides unparalleled insight into customer-critical services to help consistently deliver an amazing customer experience. Designed ...
Mar. 1, 2017 07:45 AM EST Reads: 1,348
Hardware virtualization and cloud computing allowed us to increase resource utilization and increase our flexibility to respond to business demand. Docker Containers are the next quantum leap - Are they?! Databases always represented an additional set of challenges unique to running workloads requiring a maximum of I/O, network, CPU resources combined with data locality.
Mar. 1, 2017 03:15 AM EST Reads: 2,630
An overall theme of Cloud computing and the specific practices within it is fundamentally one of automation. The core value of technology is to continually automate low level procedures to free up people to work on more value add activities, ultimately leading to the utopian goal of full Autonomic Computing. For example a great way to define your plan for DevOps tool chain adoption is through this lens. In this TechTarget article they outline a simple maturity model for planning this.
Mar. 1, 2017 12:30 AM EST Reads: 2,908
DevOps tends to focus on the relationship between Dev and Ops, putting an emphasis on the ops and application infrastructure. But that’s changing with microservices architectures. In her session at DevOps Summit, Lori MacVittie, Evangelist for F5 Networks, will focus on how microservices are changing the underlying architectures needed to scale, secure and deliver applications based on highly distributed (micro) services and why that means an expansion into “the network” for DevOps.
Mar. 1, 2017 12:00 AM EST Reads: 7,092
In his General Session at DevOps Summit, Asaf Yigal, Co-Founder & VP of Product at Logz.io, explored the value of Kibana 4 for log analysis and provided a hands-on tutorial on how to set up Kibana 4 and get the most out of Apache log files. He examined three use cases: IT operations, business intelligence, and security and compliance. Asaf Yigal is co-founder and VP of Product at log analytics software company Logz.io. In the past, he was co-founder of social-trading platform Currensee, which w...
Feb. 28, 2017 11:30 PM EST Reads: 5,924
Docker containers have brought great opportunities to shorten the deployment process through continuous integration and the delivery of applications and microservices. This applies equally to enterprise data centers as well as the cloud. In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Jari Kolehmainen, founder and CTO of Kontena, will discuss solutions and benefits of a deeply integrated deployment pipeline using technologies such as container management platforms, Docker containers, and the drone.io Cl tool...
Feb. 28, 2017 11:30 PM EST Reads: 2,687
The rise of containers and microservices has skyrocketed the rate at which new applications are moved into production environments today. While developers have been deploying containers to speed up the development processes for some time, there still remain challenges with running microservices efficiently. Most existing IT monitoring tools don’t actually maintain visibility into the containers that make up microservices. As those container applications move into production, some IT operations t...
Feb. 28, 2017 10:45 PM EST Reads: 1,794
We call it DevOps but much of the time there’s a lot more discussion about the needs and concerns of developers than there is about other groups. There’s a focus on improved and less isolated developer workflows. There are many discussions around collaboration, continuous integration and delivery, issue tracking, source code control, code review, IDEs, and xPaaS – and all the tools that enable those things. Changes in developer practices may come up – such as developers taking ownership of code ...
Feb. 28, 2017 09:30 PM EST Reads: 3,269