|By Elad Israeli||
|October 20, 2010 03:13 PM EDT||
OLAP (Online Analytical Processing) technology is the most prevalent technology used in corporate BI solutions today. And while it does what it’s supposed to do very well, it has a bad (and accurate) reputation for being very expensive and difficult to implement, as well as extremely challenging to maintain. This fact has prevented OLAP technology from gaining wide popularity outside of Fortune 500-scale companies, which are the only ones who have the budgets for company-wide, OLAP-based BI implementations.
The most recently recognized innovation (even though it’s been around for quite a while) was in-memory technology, whose main advantage was cutting implementation time and simplifying the process as a whole (a definite step in the right direction). However, as described in my recent article, In-Memory BI is Not the Future, It's the Past, using in-memory technology for speedy BI implementation introduces significant compromises, especially in terms of scalability (both for data volumes and support for many concurrent users). Now, after in-memory technology has been on the market for some time, it is clear that it is not really a replacement for OLAP technology, but did in fact expand the BI market to a wider audience. In fact, it is probably more accurate to say that in-memory technology and OLAP technology complement each other, each with its own advantages and tradeoffs.
In that article I also briefly mentioned the new disk-based ElastiCube technology (invented by SiSense). ElastiCube technology basically eliminates the inherent IMDB tradeoffs by providing unlimited scalability using off-the-shelf hardware while delivering both implementation and query response times as fast (or faster) as pure in-memory-based solutions. This claim was the subject of many of the emails and inquires I received following the article’s publication. I was repeatedly asked how ElastiCube technology had achieved what OLAP technology had failed to do for so many years, and what role in-memory technology played in its conception.
Thus, in this article I will describe how ElastiCube technology came to be, what inspired it, what made it possible and how it has already become a game-changer in the BI space, both in large corporations and small startups.
A Brief History of BI and OLAP
OLAP technology started gaining popularity in the late 1990s, and that had a lot to do with Microsoft’s first release of their OLAP Services product (now Analysis Services), based on technology acquired from Panorama Software. At that point in time, computer hardware wasn’t nearly as powerful as it is today; given the circumstances at the time, OLAP was groundbreaking. It introduced a spectacular way for business users (typically analysts) to easily perform multidimensional analysis of large volumes of business data. When Microsoft’s Multidimensional Expressions language (MDX) came closer to becoming a standard, more and more client tools (e.g., Panorama NovaView, ProClarity) started popping up to provide even more power to these users.
While Microsoft was not the first BI vendor around, their OLAP Services product was unique and significantly helped increase overall awareness of the possibilities offered by BI. Microsoft started gaining market share fairly quickly, as more as more companies started investing in BI solutions.
But as the years passed by, it became very apparent that while the type of multidimensional BI empowered by OLAP technology was a valuable asset to any organization, it seemed to be used mainly by large corporations. OLAP is just too complex and requires too much time and money to be implemented and maintained, thus eliminating it as a viable option for the majority of the market.
See: Microsoft (SSAS), IBM (Cognos)
The Visualization Front-End Craze
As more companies began investing in BI solutions, many vendors recognized the great opportunity in bringing BI to the mass market of companies with less money to spend than Fortune 500 firms. This is where visualization front-end vendors started popping up like mushrooms after the rain, each of them promising advanced business analytics to the end user, with minimal or no IT projects involved. Their appeal was based on radically reducing the infamous total cost of ownership (TCO) of typical BI solutions. These products, many of which are still available today, are full of useful and advanced visualization features.
However, after years of selling these products, it became very clear that they are incapable of providing a true alternative to OLAP-based solutions. Since they fail to provide similar centralized data integration and management capabilities, they found themselves competing mainly with Excel, and were being used only for analysis and reporting of limited data sets by individuals or small workgroups.
In order to work around these limitations (and increase revenues), these tools were introduced connectivity to OLAP sources as well as to the tabular (e.g., spreadsheet) data they supported until then. By doing that, these products basically negated the purpose for which they were initially designed – to provide an alternative to the expensive OLAP-based BI solutions.
See: Tableau Software, Tibco SpotFire, Panorama Software
The In-Memory Opportunity
The proliferation of cheap and widely available 64-bit PCs during the past few years has somewhat changed the rules of the game. More RAM could be installed in a PC, a boon for those visualization front-end vendors struggling to get more market share. More RAM on a PC means that more data can be quickly queried. If crunching a million rows of data on a machine with only 2GB of RAM was a drag, users could now add more gigabytes of RAM to their PCs and instantly solve the problem. But still, without providing centralized data integration and management, this was not a true alternative to OLAP-based solutions that are still prominent in massive organization-wide (or even inter-departmental) implementations.
Strangely enough, out of all the in-memory technology vendors out there, only one realized that using in-memory technology to empower individual users wasn't enough and that the way to gain more significant market share was to provide an end-to-end solution, from ETL to centralized data sharing to a front-end development environment. This vendor is QlikTech and it is no wonder that the company is flying high above the rest of the non-OLAP BI players. QlikTech used in-memory technology to cover a much wider range of BI solutions than any single front-end visualization tool could ever do.
By providing data integration and centralized data access capabilities, QlikTech was able to provide solutions that, for other vendors (in-memory or otherwise), required at least a lengthy data warehouse project if not a full-blown OLAP implementation. By utilizing in-memory technology in conjunction with 64-bit computing, QlikTech solutions work even on substantial amounts of data (significantly more than their traditional disk-based competitors could).
However, QlikTech has not been able to make a case for replacing OLAP yet. I believe this is not only because of the scalability issues and hardware requirements involved when large amounts of data and/or users are involved, but it’s also because they do not inherently support dimensional modeling like OLAP does. Apart from making life simpler for IT when maintaining multiple applications, OLAP’s implementation of a dimensional model also gives end users, via supporting front end tools, a broader range of flexibility in creating their own BI applications.
Microsoft, the newest entry into the in-memory BI game, also started marketing its in-memory PowerPivot solution as an alternative to OLAP, basically admitting it gives up on its Analysis Services as a viable solution for the wider mid-market.
See: QlikTech (QlikView), Microsoft (PowerPivot)
The SaaS/Cloud BI Hype
The SaaS/Cloud hype hasn’t skipped over the BI space, though running BI in the cloud does not dramatically change anything in respect to implementation time and/or complexity of implementation. In fact, cloud BI vendors use the same technologies that are widely used on-premises. There are several startup companies in this space, competing for niche markets. It’s still hard to tell what impact the cloud would have on the BI space as a whole as none of these companies has yet to prove there’s even a viable business for hosting BI in the cloud. One thing is certain, though: these companies cannot rely on in-memory technology to grow significantly. The costs of hardware and the amount of work required to support the number of customers they would need to thrive are prohibitive, to say the least. For more on the problem with cloud BI, see my earlier post, Would I Use Cloud Business Intelligence?
See: GoodData, YouCalc, Birst, PivotLink, Indicee
ElastiCube: Convergent Technologies for an Optimum Solution
ElastiCube technology was officially introduced to the market in late 2009, after more than five years of research and development conducted in complete secrecy. After being proved practical and effective in the real world (by being successfully implemented at over 100 companies, paying customers in numerous industries, from startups to multinational corporations), SiSense secured a $4 million investment to continue the development of the ElastiCube technology, and to expand awareness of the Prism Business Intelligence product which is based on the technology.
ElastiCube is the result of thoroughly analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of both OLAP and in-memory technologies, while taking into consideration the off-the-shelf hardware of today and tomorrow. The vision was to provide a true alternative to OLAP technology, without compromising on the speediness of the development cycle and query response times for which in-memory technologies are lauded. This would allow a single technology to be used in BI solutions of any scale, in any industry.
Here are the 10 main goals on which SiSense focused when designing the ElastiCube technology:
- A data warehouse must not be assumed to exist for effectively querying multiple sources.
- A star schema must not be assumed to exist for effective querying large amounts of data.
- The solution must provide unlimited scalability, both in terms of number of rows and number of fields, within a finite and reasonable amount of RAM.
- The solution must be able to operate using off-the-shelf hardware, even for extreme data/user scenarios.
- The solution must provide high-speed, out-of-the-box query performance, without requiring pre-calculations.
- There must be a separation between the application layer and the physical data layer via a virtual metadata layer.
- There must be support for a dimensional model and multidimensional analysis.
- The same application must be able to support a single user with a laptop to thousands of users via a central, server-based data repository.
- Without running an SQL database, an SQL layer must be available to conform to industry standards.
- The solution must offer the ability to incorporate additional/changed data (e.g., new rows, new fields) on the fly, without reprocessing the entire data model.
I can add that the feasibility of ElastiCube was greatly affected by the amazing CPU and disk technologies that now come with any run-of-the-mill personal computer.
ElastiCube is extremely powerful technology that enables speedy implementation of individual, workgroup and corporate-wide BI. As a solution that delivers the promise of OLAP-style BI without the cost, time and IT overhead of OLAP, it is no surprise that Prism is rapidly gaining popularity in the market. Businesses that use ElastiCube technology include household names such as, Target, Yahoo, Cisco, Samsung, Philips and Caterpillar. But a significant portion of business that use ElastiCube are significantly smaller, such as Wix and other startup companies - who otherwise could not afford BI at all.
See: SiSense (Prism)
Monitoring of Docker environments is challenging. Why? Because each container typically runs a single process, has its own environment, utilizes virtual networks, or has various methods of managing storage. Traditional monitoring solutions take metrics from each server and applications they run. These servers and applications running on them are typically very static, with very long uptimes. Docker deployments are different: a set of containers may run many applications, all sharing the resource...
Aug. 30, 2016 06:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,104
SYS-CON Events announced today that Isomorphic Software will exhibit at DevOps Summit at 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Isomorphic Software provides the SmartClient HTML5/AJAX platform, the most advanced technology for building rich, cutting-edge enterprise web applications for desktop and mobile. SmartClient combines the productivity and performance of traditional desktop software with the simp...
Aug. 30, 2016 05:45 AM EDT Reads: 2,443
Sharding has become a popular means of achieving scalability in application architectures in which read/write data separation is not only possible, but desirable to achieve new heights of concurrency. The premise is that by splitting up read and write duties, it is possible to get better overall performance at the cost of a slight delay in consistency. That is, it takes a bit of time to replicate changes initiated by a "write" to the read-only master database. It's eventually consistent, and it'...
Aug. 30, 2016 05:30 AM EDT Reads: 3,240
With so much going on in this space you could be forgiven for thinking you were always working with yesterday’s technologies. So much change, so quickly. What do you do if you have to build a solution from the ground up that is expected to live in the field for at least 5-10 years? This is the challenge we faced when we looked to refresh our existing 10-year-old custom hardware stack to measure the fullness of trash cans and compactors.
Aug. 30, 2016 02:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,854
The emerging Internet of Everything creates tremendous new opportunities for customer engagement and business model innovation. However, enterprises must overcome a number of critical challenges to bring these new solutions to market. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Michael Martin, CTO/CIO at nfrastructure, outlined these key challenges and recommended approaches for overcoming them to achieve speed and agility in the design, development and implementation of Internet of Everything solutions wi...
Aug. 30, 2016 02:00 AM EDT Reads: 2,236
A company’s collection of online systems is like a delicate ecosystem – all components must integrate with and complement each other, and one single malfunction in any of them can bring the entire system to a screeching halt. That’s why, when monitoring and analyzing the health of your online systems, you need a broad arsenal of different tools for your different needs. In addition to a wide-angle lens that provides a snapshot of the overall health of your system, you must also have precise, ...
Aug. 30, 2016 01:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,697
It's been a busy time for tech's ongoing infatuation with containers. Amazon just announced EC2 Container Registry to simply container management. The new Azure container service taps into Microsoft's partnership with Docker and Mesosphere. You know when there's a standard for containers on the table there's money on the table, too. Everyone is talking containers because they reduce a ton of development-related challenges and make it much easier to move across production and testing environm...
Aug. 29, 2016 11:45 PM EDT Reads: 5,265
Aug. 29, 2016 10:45 PM EDT Reads: 4,912
DevOps at Cloud Expo, taking place Nov 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 19th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The widespread success of cloud computing is driving the DevOps revolution in enterprise IT. Now as never before, development teams must communicate and collaborate in a dynamic, 24/7/365 environment. There is no time to wait for long dev...
Aug. 29, 2016 10:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,490
There's a lot of things we do to improve the performance of web and mobile applications. We use caching. We use compression. We offload security (SSL and TLS) to a proxy with greater compute capacity. We apply image optimization and minification to content. We do all that because performance is king. Failure to perform can be, for many businesses, equivalent to an outage with increased abandonment rates and angry customers taking to the Internet to express their extreme displeasure.
Aug. 29, 2016 08:30 PM EDT Reads: 2,446
Right off the bat, Newman advises that we should "think of microservices as a specific approach for SOA in the same way that XP or Scrum are specific approaches for Agile Software development". These analogies are very interesting because my expectation was that microservices is a pattern. So I might infer that microservices is a set of process techniques as opposed to an architectural approach. Yet in the book, Newman clearly includes some elements of concept model and architecture as well as p...
Aug. 29, 2016 07:30 PM EDT Reads: 10,898
SYS-CON Events announced today that 910Telecom will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Housed in the classic Denver Gas & Electric Building, 910 15th St., 910Telecom is a carrier-neutral telecom hotel located in the heart of Denver. Adjacent to CenturyLink, AT&T, and Denver Main, 910Telecom offers connectivity to all major carriers, Internet service providers, Internet backbones and ...
Aug. 29, 2016 07:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,984
This complete kit provides a proven process and customizable documents that will help you evaluate rapid application delivery platforms and select the ideal partner for building mobile and web apps for your organization.
Aug. 29, 2016 06:00 PM EDT Reads: 3,046
DevOps at Cloud Expo – being held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA – announces that its Call for Papers is open. Born out of proven success in agile development, cloud computing, and process automation, DevOps is a macro trend you cannot afford to miss. From showcase success stories from early adopters and web-scale businesses, DevOps is expanding to organizations of all sizes, including the world's largest enterprises – and delivering real results. Am...
Aug. 29, 2016 04:30 PM EDT Reads: 3,568
Modern organizations face great challenges as they embrace innovation and integrate new tools and services. They begin to mature and move away from the complacency of maintaining traditional technologies and systems that only solve individual, siloed problems and work “well enough.” In order to build...
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 19th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal and enterprise IT since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago. All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices - comp...
Aug. 29, 2016 02:15 PM EDT Reads: 3,747
[session] Architecting for the Cloud By @RagsS | @CloudExpo @IBMBluemix #Cloud #Docker #Microservices
As the world moves toward more DevOps and Microservices, application deployment to the cloud ought to become a lot simpler. The Microservices architecture, which is the basis of many new age distributed systems such as OpenStack, NetFlix and so on, is at the heart of Cloud Foundry - a complete developer-oriented Platform as a Service (PaaS) that is IaaS agnostic and supports vCloud, OpenStack and AWS. Serverless computing is revolutionizing computing. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Raghav...
Aug. 29, 2016 02:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,017
19th Cloud Expo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Meanwhile, 94% of enterpri...
Aug. 29, 2016 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 3,205
The following fictional case study is a composite of actual horror stories I’ve heard over the years. Unfortunately, this scenario often occurs when in-house integration teams take on the complexities of DevOps and ALM integration with an enterprise service bus (ESB) or custom integration. It is written from the perspective of an enterprise architect tasked with leading an organization’s effort to adopt Agile to become more competitive. The company has turned to Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe) as ...
Aug. 29, 2016 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 972
Let's just nip the conflation of these terms in the bud, shall we?
"MIcro" is big these days. Both microservices and microsegmentation are having and will continue to have an impact on data center architecture, but not necessarily for the same reasons. There's a growing trend in which folks - particularly those with a network background - conflate the two and use them to mean the same thing.
They are not.
One is about the application. The other, the network. T...
Aug. 29, 2016 09:30 AM EDT Reads: 4,741