Welcome!

Microservices Expo Authors: Liz McMillan, Harry Trott, Pat Romanski, Mamoon Yunus, Elizabeth White

Related Topics: Microservices Expo

Microservices Expo: Article

XML Binding Frameworks in the Context of Service-Oriented Architecture

Make an informed choice about a binding framework for your SOA needs

XMLBeans (http://xmlbeans.apache.org): XMLBeans uses XML Schema to compile to Java interfaces and classes that allow modification of XML instance data. XMLBeans provides setter and getter methods like JavaBeans. XMLBeans distinguishes itself by fully supporting XML Schema. During demarshalling an XML instance the full XML infoset is kept and is available to the developer. This is critical because a subset of XML is not easily represented in Java, e.g., the order of elements or comments might be needed in an application.

JAXB (www.java.sun.com/xml/jaxb): JAXB is a standard for XML binding and consists of two parts. First, JAXB contains a compiler that reads a schema and produces the equivalent Java object model. This generated object model captures the structure of XML better than general-purpose APIs like DOM or SAX, making it a lot easier to manipulate XML content.

The second part is an API, through which applications communicate with generated code. The JAXB implementation from SUN JWSDP1.5 is used.

Quantitative Evaluation of the Frameworks
We have quantitatively evaluated the XML binding frameworks on the following parameters.

  1. Marshalling Time - Marshalling is the process of generating an XML representation for an object in memory. As with Java object serialization, the representation needs to include all dependent objects: objects referenced by our main object, objects referenced by those objects, and so on.
  2. Demarshalling Time - Demarshalling is the reverse process of marshalling; it builds an object (and potentially a graph of linked objects) in memory from an XML representation.
  3. Memory Load - JVM Heap memory used for the whole process of marshalling and demarshalling using the respective XML binding frameworks.
Performance Tests
The test run used three samples of XML varied by its nature (segmentation factor). The test cases had to execute the selected binding frameworks on the sample XML files serially some x number of times. In addition to these, x number of threads have been executed concurrently. The combination of these test scenarios is an indicator of the memory load on a platform and time statistics of each of these utilities (see Table 1).

Test Suite
The JProbe profiler and Memory Debugger have been used to capture the performance, memory, and threading coverage issues of the respective binding frameworks. Each test case is run as a stand-alone session to have snapshots of the performance captured for each program execution. The tests are performed on a system with the following configuration:

  • Pentium IV 1.8 GHz
  • 512 MB RAM
  • Virtual Memory: 768 MB
Quantitative Results
Marshalling Time

The graphs in Figures 4.1-4.4 represent the marshalling performance for simple and complex XML respectively. Higher performance from JiBX is due to the byte code enhancement done at the compile time. It avoids introspection at runtime.

As seen from Figures 4.3 and 4.4, for multiple concurrent threads the results for XMLBeans worsen, whereas JiBX on the other hand has the same pattern.

Demarshalling Time
Refer to Figures 4.5 and Fig 4.6. Castor provides good support for data binding using code generation, but demarshalling performance is weak compared to others. The graph pattern is similar in the case of concurrent runs.

Castor uses the SAX2 parser and parses the XML file in an event-driven manner, thus reducing its speed and performance as compared to JiBX.

JiBX uses XMLPull parsing technique, unlike the push parsing techniques such as SAX. Instead of the parser calling methods in the handler to report document components, one calls the parser to get each component in turn.

Memory Load
Memory load over the entire run (composed of demarshalling marshalling) is low for JiBX as it uses the XMLPull parsing technique during demarshalling, which doesn't require the parser to maintain the state in the document. Castor uses the SAX2 parser, which requires the parser to maintain the state in the document. JAXB is relatively inefficient in terms of memory usage.

Inferences
From the performance analysis of the four data-binding frameworks, a SWOT analysis is presented in Figure 5. Based on information from Figure 5 and from the performance charts seen earlier, JiBX outperforms all of the other binding frameworks by a wide margin on both time and memory usage. JAXB scores well on marshalling and demarshalling time, but its memory usage is higher than the others. XMLBeans has a major performance hit but is more memory-efficient than Castor and JAXB. Depending on the specific requirement of an application, a suitable XML binding framework can be chosen.

Summary
We have illustrated in this article the pivotal role XML binding frameworks can play in context of SOA. To enable practitioners to make an informed choice about the appropriate XML binding platform, we have carried out a detailed quantitative analysis of some of the popular XML binding frameworks in the J2EE context, and presented the results.

References

More Stories By Dr. Srinivas Padmanabhuni

Dr. Srinivas Padmanabhuni is a principal researcher with the Web Services Centre of Excellence in SETLabs, Infosys Technologies, and specializes in Web Services, service-oriented architecture, and grid technologies alongside pursuing interests in Semantic Web, intelligent agents, and enterprise architecture. He has authored several papers in international conferences. Dr. Padmanabhuni holds a PhD degree in computing science from University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

More Stories By Bijoy Majumdar

Bijoy Majumdar is a member of the Web Services COE (Center of Excellence) for Infosys Technologies, a global IT consulting firm, and has substantial experience in publishing papers, presenting papers at conferences, and defining standards for SOA and Web services. Prior to Infosys, Bijoy Majumdar worked as an IT Analyst, and had been a member of the GE Center of Excellence (e-center) under the E-Business Practice of Tata Consultancy Services.

More Stories By Ujval Mysore

Ujval Mysore is a member of the Web Services COE (Center of Excellence) for Infosys Tehcnologies, a global IT consulting firm, and have substantial experience in publishing papers, presenting papers at conferences, and defining standards for SOA and Web services. The Web Services COE specializes in SOA, Web services, and other related technologies. Dr. Srinivas Padmanabhuni heads the Web Services COE.

More Stories By Vikram Sitaram

Vikram Sitaram is a member of the Web Services COE (Center of Excellence) for Infosys Tehcnologies, a global IT consulting firm, and have substantial experience in publishing papers, presenting papers at conferences, and defining standards for SOA and Web services. The Web Services COE specializes in SOA, Web services, and other related technologies. Dr. Srinivas Padmanabhuni heads the Web Services COE.

Comments (2) View Comments

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


Most Recent Comments
tejasvi 08/12/05 12:13:44 PM EDT

this article is excellent

XML News Desk 08/02/05 04:46:17 PM EDT

XML Binding Frameworks in the Context of Service-Oriented Architecture. This article critically evaluates the role of XML binding frameworks play in the context of service-oriented architecture (SOA) platforms, and it also provides an objective evaluation of the popular XML binding frameworks in a J2EE environment.

@MicroservicesExpo Stories
There are several reasons why businesses migrate their operations to the cloud. Scalability and price are among the most important factors determining this transition. Unlike legacy systems, cloud based businesses can scale on demand. The database and applications in the cloud are not rendered simply from one server located in your headquarters, but is instead distributed across several servers across the world. Such CDNs also bring about greater control in times of uncertainty. A database hack ...
In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Scott Davis, CTO of Embotics, discussed how automation can provide the dynamic management required to cost-effectively deliver microservices and container solutions at scale. He also discussed how flexible automation is the key to effectively bridging and seamlessly coordinating both IT and developer needs for component orchestration across disparate clouds – an increasingly important requirement at today’s multi-cloud enterprise.
DevOps at Cloud Expo, taking place October 31 - November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 21st Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The widespread success of cloud computing is driving the DevOps revolution in enterprise IT. Now as never before, development teams must communicate and collaborate in a dynamic, 24/7/365 environment. There is no time to w...
API Security is complex! Vendors like Forum Systems, IBM, CA and Axway have invested almost 2 decades of engineering effort and significant capital in building API Security stacks to lockdown APIs. The API Security stack diagram shown below is a building block for rapidly locking down APIs. The four fundamental pillars of API Security - SSL, Identity, Content Validation and deployment architecture - are discussed in detail below.
IT organizations are moving to the cloud in hopes to approve efficiency, increase agility and save money. Migrating workloads might seem like a simple task, but what many businesses don’t realize is that application migration criteria differs across organizations, making it difficult for architects to arrive at an accurate TCO number. In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Joe Kinsella, CTO of CloudHealth Technologies, will offer a systematic approach to understanding the TCO of a cloud application...
API Security has finally entered our security zeitgeist. OWASP Top 10 2017 - RC1 recognized API Security as a first class citizen by adding it as number 10, or A-10 on its list of web application vulnerabilities. We believe this is just the start. The attack surface area offered by API is orders or magnitude larger than any other attack surface area. Consider the fact the APIs expose cloud services, internal databases, application and even legacy mainframes over the internet. What could go wrong...
Cloud adoption is often driven by a desire to increase efficiency, boost agility and save money. All too often, however, the reality involves unpredictable cost spikes and lack of oversight due to resource limitations. In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Joe Kinsella, CTO and Founder of CloudHealth Technologies, tackled the question: “How do you build a fully optimized cloud?” He will examine: Why TCO is critical to achieving cloud success – and why attendees should be thinking holistically ab...
Web services have taken the development world by storm, especially in recent years as they've become more and more widely adopted. There are naturally many reasons for this, but first, let's understand what exactly a web service is. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) defines "web of services" as "message-based design frequently found on the Web and in enterprise software". Basically, a web service is a method of sending a message between two devices through a network. In practical terms, this ...
Docker is on a roll. In the last few years, this container management service has become immensely popular in development, especially given the great fit with agile-based projects and continuous delivery. In this article, I want to take a brief look at how you can use Docker to accelerate and streamline the software development lifecycle (SDLC) process.
The goal of Continuous Testing is to shift testing left to find defects earlier and release software faster. This can be achieved by integrating a set of open source functional and performance testing tools in the early stages of your software delivery lifecycle. There is one process that binds all application delivery stages together into one well-orchestrated machine: Continuous Testing. Continuous Testing is the conveyer belt between the Software Factory and production stages. Artifacts are m...
We define Hybrid IT as a management approach in which organizations create a workload-centric and value-driven integrated technology stack that may include legacy infrastructure, web-scale architectures, private cloud implementations along with public cloud platforms ranging from Infrastructure-as-a-Service to Software-as-a-Service.
In his session at @DevOpsSummit at 20th Cloud Expo, Kelly Looney, director of DevOps consulting for Skytap, showed how an incremental approach to introducing containers into complex, distributed applications results in modernization with less risk and more reward. He also shared the story of how Skytap used Docker to get out of the business of managing infrastructure, and into the business of delivering innovation and business value. Attendees learned how up-front planning allows for a clean sep...
In IT, we sometimes coin terms for things before we know exactly what they are and how they’ll be used. The resulting terms may capture a common set of aspirations and goals – as “cloud” did broadly for on-demand, self-service, and flexible computing. But such a term can also lump together diverse and even competing practices, technologies, and priorities to the point where important distinctions are glossed over and lost.
Enterprise architects are increasingly adopting multi-cloud strategies as they seek to utilize existing data center assets, leverage the advantages of cloud computing and avoid cloud vendor lock-in. This requires a globally aware traffic management strategy that can monitor infrastructure health across data centers and end-user experience globally, while responding to control changes and system specification at the speed of today’s DevOps teams. In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Josh Gray, Chie...
"At the keynote this morning we spoke about the value proposition of Nutanix, of having a DevOps culture and a mindset, and the business outcomes of achieving agility and scale, which everybody here is trying to accomplish," noted Mark Lavi, DevOps Solution Architect at Nutanix, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @DevOpsSummit at 20th Cloud Expo, held June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
We have already established the importance of APIs in today’s digital world (read about it here). With APIs playing such an important role in keeping us connected, it’s necessary to maintain the API’s performance as well as availability. There are multiple aspects to consider when monitoring APIs, from integration to performance issues, therefore a general monitoring strategy that only accounts for up-time is not ideal.
In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Mike Johnston, an infrastructure engineer at Supergiant.io, discussed how to use Kubernetes to set up a SaaS infrastructure for your business. Mike Johnston is an infrastructure engineer at Supergiant.io with over 12 years of experience designing, deploying, and maintaining server and workstation infrastructure at all scales. He has experience with brick and mortar data centers as well as cloud providers like Digital Ocean, Amazon Web Services, and Rackspace. H...
As many know, the first generation of Cloud Management Platform (CMP) solutions were designed for managing virtual infrastructure (IaaS) and traditional applications. But that’s no longer enough to satisfy evolving and complex business requirements. In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Scott Davis, Embotics CTO, will explore how next-generation CMPs ensure organizations can manage cloud-native and microservice-based application architectures, while also facilitating agile DevOps methodology. He wi...
When you focus on a journey from up-close, you look at your own technical and cultural history and how you changed it for the benefit of the customer. This was our starting point: too many integration issues, 13 SWP days and very long cycles. It was evident that in this fast-paced industry we could no longer afford this reality. We needed something that would take us beyond reducing the development lifecycles, CI and Agile methodologies. We made a fundamental difference, even changed our culture...
These days, change is the only constant. In order to adapt and thrive in an ever-advancing and sometimes chaotic workforce, companies must leverage intelligent tools to streamline operations. While we're only at the dawn of machine intelligence, using a workflow manager will benefit your company in both the short and long term. Think: reduced errors, improved efficiency and more empowered employees-and that's just the start. Here are five other reasons workflow automation is leading a revolution...